OVERVIEW OF THE SINDH PROVINCE
The Province of Sindh is located in the South- Eastern part of the country (between Lat 23-35 and Lat 28- 30 N). Its gross geographical area is 140,914 Sq. km which is 18% of the country. The geographical area is 14 million hectares out of which almost 8.0 million hectare is cultivable, and the remaining area is not available for cultivation mostly lying in the northern hills of Khirthar Range, eastern desert of Thar Desert and Achharo Thar and the riverian area. Sindh’s 60% land area is arid. Annual average precipitation is 5 inches yearly. The mighty River Indus flows in the middle of the province. There are seasonal streams which become active in the monsoon season, they emanate from the Khirthar hill range from west of province, which fallout in River Indus and Arabian Sea. The boundaries of Sindh are touched by Arabian Sea in South, India in east, Punjab in north and Balochistan in west. Administratively Sindh province is divided in 23 districts ,
119 Talukas ( Tehsils ) , 1100 Union Councils, 1439 Tapas and 5,871 Dehs (Mauza) having 66,923 human settlements, as per 1998 census.
The province took its name from River Sindh ( as per the Greeks ). Predominantly, it is an agricultural and pastoral economy. Lately minerals have been id entified like petrol, gas, coal granite and cut stone etc. These are being exploited which contribute substantially to the national produce. Besides the province has industries of various kind which include textile, chemical , cement, steel and others. Most of the industries are located in three Cities- Karachi, Kotri/ Hyderabad and Sukkur. There are two modern sea ports: Karachi Port and Bin Qasim Port, both of which are situated in Karachi and serve the entire country including Afghanistan.
The geology of Sindh is divisible in three main regions, the mountain ranges of Kirthar, Pab containing a chain of minor hills in the west and in east it is covered by the Thar Desert and part of Indian Platform where the main exposure is of Karonjhar mountains, which is famous for Nagar Parkar Granite. In the north Sindh is enquired by rocks of Laki range extending to Suleiman range and its southern most part is encircled by the Arabian Sea. The rocks exposed in this area belong to upper Cretaceous which are recent in age. The sub-surface rocks are about 20,000 feet thick and belong to Cretaceous and Pre-Cretaceous periods. Mostly the rocks are of sedimentary origin of clastic and non-clastic nature and belong to marine, partly marine and fluviatile depositional environments.
Basin wise Sindh lies in the lower Indus Basin and its main tectonic features are the platform and fore deep areas. Thick sequences of Pab sandstone of Upper Cretaceous, Ranikot Group (Khadro, Bara, Lakhra) of Paleocene, Laki, Tiyon, and Khirthar of Eocene age, Nari Formation of Oligocene, Gaj Formation of Lower to Middle Miocene, Manchar of Upper Miocene to Pliocene, Dada Conglomerate of 3
Pleistocene are present in various areas of Sindh. Limestone and sandstones are the most dominant sedimentary rocks in the area. Structurally Sindh generally contains gently folded anticlinal features trending in north-south direction. The major active faults in province are as under:
SURJANI FAULT: N-S Trending. Located west of Larkana. It cuts Quaternary deposits. The maximum magnitude of the earthquake associated with the fault is of the order M=6.1 on Ritcher Scale.
JHIMPIR FAULT: N-W Trending. A number of epicenters are located on the fault. The fault has produced an earthquake of M=5.6 on Ritcher Scale.
PAB FAULT: NN-W Trending. Located in the eastern part of Pab range. The maximum magnitude of the earthquake associated with fault is of the order M=7.0 on Ritcher Scale.
RANN OF KUTCH: E-W Trending. The fault has produced an earthquake of the order M=7.6 on Ritcher Scale. Recent studies have revealed that this fault traverses the Karachi Metropolitan Area.
The 1998 Census of Pakistan indicated a population of 30.4 mi llion, the current population can be estimated to be in the range of 36 to 38 million using a compound growth in the range of 2% to 2.8% since then. With just under half being urban dwellers, mainly living in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur and Larkana. It is 23% of national count. Male population is 16.098 million and female population is 14.342 million. The literacy ratio is 45.29%- male 54.50% and female 34.78%. Rural area 25.73% – male 37.89% and female 12.23% whereas, urban – 63.72% – Male 69.75% & female 56.66%. Agriculture & fisheries workers counts 34.84% out of which 65.56% is rural population, Elementary occupation and service sect or and business count 43.65%.
The society is cosmopolitan and the languages spoken besides Sindhi are Urdu, Punjabi, Pashto, Siraiki, Balochi, Brahui, Rajasthani, and Gujarati, while Balochis and Urdu-speaking are recent immigrants. Both Balochi, Sindhi and natives speak Sindhi language as their mother tongue.
Sindh’s population is predominantly Muslim. The province of Sindh is also home to nearly all of Pakistan’s Hindus, numbering roughly 1.8 million, although most Sindhi Hindus migrated to India at the time of the partition. Smaller groups of Christians, Parsis or Zoroastrians, Ahmadis, and a few members of the Jewish community can also be found in the province.
The society in general is harmonious , but in the last couple of decades 4
communal strife have been reported, which affects the peace of the province in particular and the country at large in general.
As of the rest of Pakistan, the economy of Sindh is predominantly agricultural and depends almost entirely on artificial irrigation. The principal source of water is the Indus River, on which three irrigation Barrages have been built – Guddu on the Punjab border; the Lloyd Barrage in Sukkur and the Kotri barrage at Kotri is the farthest at south.
Sindh’s principal crops are wheat, rice, cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, vegetables and fruits. Sheep, cattle, camels, and poultry are raised, and there is a healthy fishing industry as well. Manufacturing industries are concentrated in Karachi, Hyderabad, Nooriabad, Kotri and Sukkur. They produce textile products, cement, cardboard, chemicals, electric power supplies, rail-road equipment, machinery and other metal products.
In 1998, there were 5.022 million households in Sindh, with average household size at 6.0 persons and occupancy at 3.3 persons per room. The overall housing stock comprised 52 percent kutcha houses mostly without proper water supply, 48 percent semi-pucca houses mostly without planned sanitation or sewerage system. The majority of rural housing is kutcha ( mud ), with minimal water supply and sanitation or drainage services. Almost half of the urban population is living in slums and kutchi abadis, with inadequate housing and living conditions.
1.7 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM
Administratively Sindh province is governed through 23 districts, among these, Karachi is the City District Government. The district governments are headed by the City / Zila Nazim supported by District Coordination Officer, who heads the district group of offices. The devolved departments are Home, Finance & Planning, Revenue, Health, Education, Community Development, Works and Services, Agriculture & Forest, Law and Civil Defense. There are 119 Talukas, administratively called Taluka Municipal Administration (TMAs). The number of villages (settlements) was 66,923 as per census of 1998 within 5871 dehs ( Mauza).5