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how many sindhis live in karachi

July 14, 2013

 

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ranjha heerda

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ranjha heerda (nimroz80@yahoo.co.in)
8/14/11
 
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Bilal Akber

Member since:

January 12, 2011

Total points:

47 (Level 1)

How many sindhis live in karachi?

guyz i wanna know how many sindhis live in karachi….in 1998 it were 10%…now un says in 2011 the might be around 20%….some esttimates also tell around 15%…plzz hepl

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its now 50%, indians invented the kama sutra. indian repoduction is so advanced women dance around a flower and become pregnant !!!

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ALL KARACHI SINDHI JAMAT

WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 26, 2007

HAZRAT HAJI ALI

 

Posted by ALL KARACHI SINDHI JAMAT at 4:57 AM 0 comments

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

 

 

 

On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and “to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories.”PREAMBLE
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
Article 1.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 2.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Article 3.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Article 4.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Article 5.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Article 6.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
Article 7.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Article 8.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
Article 9.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Article 10.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
Article 11.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
Article 12.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Article 13.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
Article 14.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
(2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 15.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
Article 16.
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
Article 17.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
(2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.
Article 18.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Article 19.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Article 20.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
(2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.
Article 21.
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
Article 22.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
Article 23.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
(2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
(3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
(4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
Article 24.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
Article 25.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.
Article 26.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.
Article 27.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.
Article 28.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
Article 29.
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
(2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
(3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Article 30.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

Posted by ALL KARACHI SINDHI JAMAT at 4:42 AM 0 comments

Surah Al-Fatihah

 

Posted by ALL KARACHI SINDHI JAMAT at 4:24 AM 1 comments

proverbs

Aa-ee taando khanan, Borchyaani thee vethee (She came only to borrow a charcoal, but remained to take full charge of the kitchen)
Aah gareebaa kair khudaayee (if the down trodden cry in pain for the harm inflicted upon them, then God Himself takes revenge.)
Aahey ta Eed na ta Rozo (if one is financially sound, then one eats well, like one does during the festival of “Eed”. If one, on the other hand is not economically comfortable, then one must perforce fast like during “Roza”.)
Abo gasey dheeya vasey (that fathers have to work very hard so that their daughters prosper.)(dowry related)
Ahraa suhinaa toohaa ta jangal mein bhee ahan (beautiful “toohaa” flowers abound in the jungle.)
Aj hamaan, Subhaaney tamaan (today I suffer, tomorrow you might be the sufferer.)
Akul khaaey gam or Gam Khaaiendein, Sukh Paaendein (the wise one swallows ones pain and pride knowing the reward will be peace of mind )
Allah rusey mat khasey (What happens when God is unhappy with you? you lose you good sense.)
Amaanat mein khyaanat na kajey (if someone gives one something for safe-keeping, one must honorably return it when the time came.)
Ba bhaur tyon lekho (where there are two brothers, a written document (of finance and properties) must exist.)
Baanee saayee jee saayee, Gaayee bukhyey jo bukhyo (those who are honest will never want even though they may be cheated)
Bandey jey man mein hikri, Sahib jey man mein bee (Man Proposes, God disposes)
Budyal beri maan, Loh bhee chango (whatever one is able to salvage from a bad debt is good. Hence if a ship drowns, salvage the iron.)
Chao dhiya khey, Ta sikhey noonha or Dhak hanh dhiya khey, Ta sikhey noonha (If you instruct your daughter, your daughter-in-law learns.)
Charee jo chooro, Kadheen tanga mein, Kadheen baanh mein (a crazy woman wears a bangle, sometimes on her wrist and sometimes on her leg. This proverbs is pointing to the fickle nature of an unstable woman.)
Chintaa chikhyaa samaan (worry is like death.)
Chor jee maau, Kund mein rooey (the mother of the thief, cries in a corner. This proverb implies that the mother of a guilty one cannot share her grief with anyone, and hence cries alone)
Daaney daaney tey mohir. (that every grain of food is stamped with the name of the eater.)
Deraanyoon veraanyoon, satan janman khaan viryal (sister’s in -law (wives of brothers), continue to remain enemies since the last seven generations even though they probably stayed and ate together.)
Ditho sab visaar, Undithey khey yaad kar (one must forget what one has seen, and look towards the unseen future)
Doita vadhandey very (the children from ones daughter were never close enough to their maternal grand-parents, however much the latter pampered the kids.)
Eendo sabko disey, vendo disey kon (People have a way of noticing how much money comes into the house, but they generally never keep count of how much goes into expenditure.)
Ehro kam kajey, Jo laal labhey, Ain preet bhee rehjee achey ( one should act in such a manner that we find the sought for gem and we continue to retain the friendship.)
Gareeb jee joy, jag jee bhaajaayee (the wife of a poor man is like a brother’s wife to the world. I believe that the above means that just like a brother’s wife was supposed to serve one with respect, so was a poor man’s wife.)
Ghar ghoran khey, Baara choran khey (for daughters in law or/and wives who spend enough time following their own pursuits: the house has been left to the horses, and the children have been left under the care of thieves.)
Ghar jee gahpee, Matan jo panee sukaayey chhadey (arguments in a house can get so hot, that they are capable of drying up the water in the earthen pots.)
Ghar jo kin, Ghar mein dhopjey (one must wash ones dirty laundry at home.)
Ghar mein ghar, Budee vanee mar (if your extended joint families live under the same roof, you are as good as dead.)
Gur jaaney, Gur jee gothree jaaney (only the person who is in the situation is aware of his own pain) Hikree latey sau patey (one door closes, another hundred open.)
Jabal khey thyaa soora jaayee kuyee (the mountain had labor pains, but only a mouse took birth.)
Jahaan jeeyu tahaan sikhu (there is no end to learning, and that while one continues to live one continues to learn.)
Jainh khaado taro, Tainh khey nako soor nako baro. (if one eats the food from the bottom of the saucepan, one will not suffer from pain or humiliation. It implies that it pays to be humble.)
Jainjo khaaibo, Tainjo gaaibo (one must appreciate and praise, those who feed you and/or do you a favour.)
Jainkhey dinyoon jaayoon, Tinsaan kahryoon baayoon (once one has given ones daughters in marriage, one cannot get angry with her new family.)
Jeda utha, Teda loda (The bigger the camel, the bigger the jerks it experiences.)
Jeeyu khush ta jahaan khush (Laugh and the world laughs with you)
Jeko chul tey, So dil tey (one is always more fond of those members of ones family with who one lives and eats together.)
Jeko daadho so gaabo (he who stands his ground, eventually wins.)
Jinjo hitey khap, Tinjo hutey bhi khap (Literally means: Those who are most needed on earth, Seem to be needed by God as well. Or, Those people who are needed, die sooner than we would like them to.)
Kadheen kadheen akhyoon bi dokho khaayee vanyan (sometimes ones own eyes deceive us)
Karz vado marz (owing debts is like suffering from a bad disease.)
Khaado khaaey, Ta akhiyoon lajayeen (if you partake of somebody’s food, you feel embarrassed until you reciprocate the favor.)
Khaado khaaibo ta khangbo bhee (while eating, you will be sometimes forced to clear your throat.)
Khushee jairee khuraak koney, gantee jairo marz koney (there is no nourishment like joy, and no disease is worse than worry.)
Kini aangur vadhee bhalee (it is better to cut a bad finger. ( Rather than the poison spreads).)
Koylan jey dalaalee mein, hatha bhee kaaraa, Ta per bhee kaaraa (if you work in a coal mine, your hands and feet are bound to get soiled.)
Kuey ladhee haid garee, Chavey aaon pasaaree (a mouse found a piece of turmeric, and claims to own a grocery store.) Labhey lath na, Babo bandookan vaaro (he is a type of person who does not even own a stick, and he claims to be a master of guns.)
Lachmi vaney ta lachhan bi vanan (What happens when wealth bids adieu? Sometimes it takes your good qualities with it.)
Maaran vaarey khaan, Rakhan vaaro vado aahey (God, the Protector is greater than he who wants to harm you)
Maau jee dil makhan, Puta jee dil pathar (a mother’s heart is soft as butter while the heart of the son is made of stone.)
Mau janeendi putraa, Bhaag na deendi vandey (though a mother gives birth and life to children, yet she cannot divide the same destiny equally amongst them.)
Moor khaan vyaaj mitho (the interest is always more enjoyable than the principal amount, thereby implying that one tends to love ones grand-children more than their parents.)
Moorakh jey khushaamad khaan, Syaaney jee tok bhalee (it is better to be criticized by a wise man rather than be praised by a fool.)
Murs ta phado, Na ta jado (unless a husband is hard to please, he is not good enough.)
Na dijey na dukhoyjey (Do not give, if you must hurt the person later.”)
Naadaan dost khaan, Daanav dushman chango (it is better to have a wise enemy than a foolish friend.)
Naani radhan vaaree, Doitaa khaain vaaraa (maternal grand-children eat while the grand-mother toils and cooks.)
Naarey binaa nar vegaano (without money man feels alone and dejected.)
Naathee dingee kaathee (son-in-law is compared to a crooked stick.)
Nayee kwaanr nava deenha, Chhikey taaney daha deenha (a bride remains a new bride for 9 days, and at the most for 10 days. This proverb probably means that a bride gets to rest for 9 days after which she starts her domestic duties.)
Nekee karey daryaa mein vijh (after having performed a good deed, drop the thought of it into the sea.)( your right hand does a good deed, your left hand should not get to know about it.)
Noree maan naang karan (There are people, who do nothing but exaggerate. Sindhis said that such people convert a rope into a snake.) (Storm in a teacup)
Pahanjey gatee, Pau gaday khey pere (for ones benefit, one sometimes should pamper a donkey (a fool).)
Par pyo, ghar vyo (when an intruder enters ones house, he may be the cause of the destruction of ones home.)
Putu thyey maal bhai, Dheeya thyey haal bhai (a son shares you properties and possessions whereas a daughter partakes of your joys and sorrows.)
Saa-ey maan sau sukha (one can derive a lot of benefit from the fortunate ones.)
Sab aangriyoon baraabar konan (all fingers are not of the same size or shape.)
Sabur jo phal mitho aahey (that patience brings a sweet reward.) perseverance brings to ones destiny a fruit that is sweet.)
Sach ta vetho nach (If you speak the truth you can continue to dance with joy. In other words, if you speak the truth, you can enjoy peace as there is no fear of you contradicting yourself.)
Sakhi khaan shoom bhalo, Jo turt dyey javaab (he is better, who promptly says “No” to a proposition, rather than the one who says “Yes” to proposals, and then goes on to resent the same.)
Sakhini kunee ghano ubhaamey (an empty vessel bubbles more, or makes the most sound.)
Sas kaath jee bi suthee (though a mother-in-law be hard as wood , she is good to have around, as during times of need she would always be there to extend a helping hand.)
Savar aahir per digheran (one should live according to ones means.)
Sena akhyun jaa nena (the in-laws of ones off-spring, are as dear to one, as ones own eye pupils.)
Sheedi siki vyaa soonha khaan, Maan siki vyas siyaani noonha khaan (the dark-skinned people yearn for a fair complexion, whereas I long for a sensible daughter-in-law.)
Soorat khaan seerat bhali (it is better to have uprightness, rather than possess good looks. )
Taari hik hathee kon vajandee aahey (one cannot clap with one hand . It implies that wherever there is an argument, all parties are probably to blame to a certain extent.)
Thado gharo paan khey paaneyee chhaaon mein vyaarey (a cool pot of water seats itself in the shade. It implies that if one stays composed one stays out of conflict.)
Thoro disee araao na thijey, Ghano disee sarao na thijey (For peace of mind: one should not to be distressed, when one possesses less, and not be proud when one has much. Thus: Turt daan, Maha kalyaan (if you execute your duty promptly, it is equivalent to performing a good deed.)
Turt kam maha punya (if you execute your duty promptly, it is equivalent to performing a good deed.)
Uhaayee zibaan ussa mein vyaarey, Uhaayee zibaan chhaaon mein vyaarey (the same tongue makes you sit under the sun and it is the same tongue that makes you sit in the shade.)
Uhey hath roti mein, Uhey hath choti mein (people who take up too many tasks at one time, are like those who use the same hands to knead dough, and the same hands to plait their hair.)
Uheyee hatha neer mein, Uheyee hatha kheer mein (at times life doles out two tasks at the same time. One provides pain, and the other gives joy.)
Uho sone hi ghoryo, Jo kana chhiney (those golden earrings are not worthy of possession if they are too heavy and tear your ears.)
Un-herya na her, mataan hirani, Heryaan na pher mataan phiranee (one should not get someone used to constant favors done out of goodwill, because when you stop doing them the benefaction, they might turn against one.)
Vandey viraayey sukh paaye (sharing what one has with ones brethren , gives happiness.)
Vethee huyee ruthee, Mathaan aayus peko maanoo (She was sitting annoyed and upset, and to make it worse, came someone to visit from her family.)
Vyaaj aahey Soortee ghoro (interest is like a racing horse.)
Vyaaj raat jo bhee pandh karey (interest “runs” which implies that it augments even during the night.)
Tatoon khe taro, kazi khe isharo
Jite Lobhi hujhan, utey thogi bukha na maran
Hika hatha mein ba gidra kone khani saghanda.

Posted by ALL KARACHI SINDHI JAMAT at 4:07 AM 0 comments

sindhi Culture

Sindh is a repository of varied cultural values and has remained the seat of civilization and meeting point of diverse cultures from times immemorial. Sindh’s cultural life has been shaped, to a large extent, by its comparative isolation in the past from the rest of the subcontinent. A long stretch of desert to its east and a mountainous terrain to the west served as barriers, while the Arabian Sea in the south and the Indus in the north prevented easy access.
As a result, the people of Sindh developed their own exclusive artistic tradition. Their arts and craft, music and literature, games and sports have retained their original flavor. Sindh is rich in exquisite pottery, variegated glazed tiles, lacquer-work, leather and straw products, needlework, quilts, embroidery, hand print making and textile design. According to renowned European historian H.T. Sorelay, Sindhis had not only contributed to literature but also to astronomy, medicine, philosophy, dialectics and similar subjects.
Genuine love for fellow beings, large heartedness and hospitality constitute the very spirit of Sindhi culture and it is the association of the cultural elements that elevate it and keep aloft its banner among the contemporary cultures of South-Asia. Having lived for centuries under the changing sway of various dynasties i.e. the Arabs, Mughals, Arghuns, Turkhans and Soomras, Sammahs, Kalhoras and Talpurs, Sindhi culture is a fusion of multiple culture patterns.
Origins
Sindhi language has evolved over a period of two millennia; with many waves of invasions by Greeks, Arabs, Arghuns, Tarkhans, Seythians, Turks, Mughals and so on. Sindh, on the north west of undivided India, had always been the first to bear the onslaught of the never-ending invaders, and as such absorbed Hindi, Persian, Arabic, Turkish, English and even Portuguese. The language of the people of Sindh has a solid base of Prakrit and Sanskrit, showing great susceptibility towards borrowings from Arabic, Persian, and Dravidian (such as Brahui in Baluchistan).
Sindh was the seat of the ancient Indus valley civilization during the third millennium BC as discovered from the Moen-jo-Daro excavation. The pictographic seals and clay tablets obtained from these excavations still await proper decipherment by epigraphists. For more about the Language of Mohenjodaro: click here. 
The Sindhi parlance has witnessed a transition over the years and there are varying theories related to the ancestry of the language. Historians working hard to fathom the origin of the language have varying conclusions to offer.
Facts and discoveries of Sindhi parlances over the years have launched a debate about the Sindhi language being a derivative of the ancient Sanskrit dialect and there a few historians who believe that it’s the other way round. Dr Ernest Trumpp was the pioneer of the theory that Sindhi is a derivative of Sanskrit language. Judging from its vocabulary and roots of verbs, Dr Trumpp came to the conclusion that “Sindhi is a pure Sanskritical language, more free from foreign elements than any of the North Indian vernaculars.”
The Rev. Mr.G. Shirt of Hyderabad, one of the first Sindhi scholars, considered that the language is probably, so far as its grammatical construction is concerned, the purest daughter of Sanskrit. It has small sprinkling of Dravidian words, and has in later times received large accessions to its vocabulary from Arabic and Persian.
Hindu scholars Dr. H M Gurbaxani and Berumal Maharchand Advani agreed with the concept. But Miss Popati Hiranandani in her book ‘Sindhis: The scattered treasure’ (pg6) has an interesting deliberation to this theory. According to her some scholars confused the words prakrita (meaning=natural) with the word purakrita (meaning – formed first), which misled them. In the same way, she says, due to affinity towards Hinduism, litterateurs like Kishinchand Jetley translated a couplet from Sindhi poet Shah Abdul Latif’s poetry into Sanskrit and concluded that the similarity shows the derivation of Sindhi from Sanskrit. She rightly argues that it could be the other way round too and cites two authorities to elucidate this point. One is Siraj-ul-Haq of Pakistan who states:
“The history of Sindhi is older than that of Sanskrit and its related civilization or culture are derived from the civilization or culture of Sindh and from Sindhi language…Sanskrit is born of Sindhi – if not directly, at least indirectly.”
The other is an Indian linguist, S Kandappan who says:
“Sindhi is one of the ancient languages. I say it is the most ancient languages, I know it has got its origin even before Sanskrit in the country….”
Interestingly, after further studies Dr Trumpp himself seemed to be doubtful about his findings. Testimonies to this are the remarks in one of his work of arts:
“Sindhi has remained steady in the first stage of decomposition after the old Prakrit, where all other cognate dialects have sunk some degrees deeper and we shall see in the course of our introductory remarks that rule, which the Prakrit grammarian, Kramdishvara has laid down in reference to the Apabramsha, are still recognizable in present day Sindhi, which by no means can be stated of the other dialects. The Sindhi has thus become an independent language, which, though sharing a common origin with its sister tongues, is very materially different from them.”
Dr Trumpp’s initial theory was first challenged by Dr. Nabibux Baloch. He believes that Sindhi belongs to the Semitic group. Mr. Ali Nawaz Jatoi holds the same view. They point out that there are some words in Sindhi that cannot be found in Sanskrit. Besides, the suffixes added to the pronouns in Sindhi suggest its relation with Semitic languages. The word ‘Sanskrit’ itself denotes that it is a polished or refined form of a language that was already prevalent. The grammarians Patanjali and Panini formed rules and regulations, which came to be necessarily, and compulsorily followed by writers and poets of those days. Thus, Sanskrit was only the language of literature as is evident from works of classical writers. Dr Baloch states:
“Sindhi is an ancient Indo-Aryan language, probably having its origin in a pre-Sanskrit Indo-Aryan Indus Valley language. The Lahnda and Kashmiri appear to be its cognate sisters with a common Dardic element in them all.”
Sir George Grierson too places Sindhi as a near relative of the Dardic languages. (Dardistan is a region near Kashmir).
Literature
Sindh is where Persian and Indian cultures blended, for the area was introduced to Islam in 712AD. Thus, very little of Sindhi literature of the earlier period has survived. The Summara and Summa periods are virtually blank except for the few poems of Hamad, Raju and Isack. The heroic ballads of this period set to music by Shah Abdul Karim (1538-1625) are the earliest records of the Sindhi language.
Real flourish of Sindhi poetic talent came during the last stages of the 18th century. Although the time was not appropriate for cultural developments as invaders repeatedly plundered the country during this period. Several works like Shah Abdul Latif’s Shah-Jo-Rasalo, the magnum opus of Sindhi literature, were produced.
It describes the life of a common man, the sorrows and sufferings of the ill-starred heroes of ancient folklore. Sachal, another eminent, poet closely followed Shah Abdul Karim. He was a Sufi rebel poet who did not adhere to any religion and denounced religious radicals. The poet Saami was a complete contrast to Kari, more pious than poetical, yet possessing a charm of his own. There was an excess of songsters in Sindhi who recited similar ideas and themes in varied tones. The notables among them are Bedil, his son Bekas, and Dalpat. Gul Mohamad introduced Persian forms of poetry replacing the native baits and Kafees. Mirza Kaleech Beg who composed on the same lines contributed a lot to Sindhi literature.
Dayaram Gidumal and Mirza Kaleech were two of the early prose writers. The former was a great scholar and he was famous mainly for his metaphysical writings. The noted lexicographer and essayist Parmanand Mewaram wrote essays that educated and instructed both the young and the old. This peer group also comprised of Bherumal Meherchand, Lalchand Amardinomal and Jethmal Parsram, and Acharya Gidwani, N. R. Malkani and Dr H. M. Gurbuxani

Posted by ALL KARACHI SINDHI JAMAT at 4:06 AM 0 comments

SINDHI LANGUAGE ORIGION

Origins:
What was the original script of Sindhi? Sindhi lacked an authentic script/alphabet. It was either written in more than eight different scripts:
ThattaiKhudabadiLuhanikiMemonkiKhojikiDevnagriGurmukhiHatkai (Hatvaniki).
Even 300 years after the Arab conquest, at the time of Mahmud Ghazni, Al-Biruni, historian, found three scripts current — Ardhanagari, Saindhu and Malwari, all variations of Devnagri.
When the British arrived, they found the Pandits writing Sindhi in Devnagri. Traders — including Khojas and Memons — were using a variety of “Modi” or “Vanika” scripts, without any vowels. Hindu women were using Gurmukhi and government employees, some kind of Arabic script.
British scholars found the language Sanskritic and said that the Devnagri script would be right for it. In 1849 they produced an English-Sindhi dictionary in Devnagri. A year later they translated the Bible in Sindhi, again in the Devnagri script. Government servants, many of whom were Hindus, favoured the Arabic script, since they did not know Devnagri, and had to learn it anew.
A big debate started, with Capt. Burton favouring the Arabic script and Capt. Stack favouring Devnagri. Sir Bartle Frere, the Commissioner of Sindh, referred the matter to the Court of Directors of the British East India Company, which favoured Arabic on the ground that Muslim names could not be written in Devnagri.
Sir Richard Burton, an orientalist, with the help of local scholars Munshi Thanwardas and Mirza Sadiq Ali Beg evolved a 52-letter Sindhi alphabet. Since the Arabic script could not express many Sindhi sounds, a scheme of dots was worked out for the purpose. As a result, the Sindhi script today not only has all its own sounds, but also all the four Z’s of Arabic.
The present script predominantly used in Sindh as well as in many states in India and elsewhere where migrant Sindhis have settled, is Arabic in Naskh styles having fifty two alphabets. However, in some circles in India, Devanagari is used for writing Sindhi. The Government of India recognizes both scripts.
Technical Characteristics Sindhi Alphabet
The graphic representation of each alphabet has more than one form depending on its position. In general each letter has four forms: beginning, middle, final and standalone.
Phonology:
The phonological system of Sindhi in most respects resembles that of other Indo-Aryan languages. Sindhi has 53 distinct sound-units: 39 consonants, 3 semivowels, 10 vowels, and a unit of nasalization.
Segmental phonemes
The Sindhi consonant system consists of 25 stops (including 4 palatal-affricates), 5 nasals, 6 fricatives and 3 liquids. Consonantal sounds show five-fold contrast in the place of articulation: labial, dental, retroflex, palatal and velar.
Sindhi has the fullest stop system of any of the Indo- Aryan languages. The stop series shows contrast between voicing and unvoicing, aspiration and pressure and suction.
A series of four implosive stops – (bbe, DDe, jje, gge : in sounding them breath is drawn in instead of being expelled as in be, De, je, ge) is a striking characteristic of Sindhi phonology.
In Sindhi vao, ye, he function similarly to consonants in initial and certain medial positions. But in final postion and also medially when preceeding or following a consonant, these occur as vocalic glides; thus forming dipthongs with preceding or following vowels; these are classified as semivowels.
Sindhi has a ten-vowel system, showing three-fold contrast in the tongue-position: front, central and back; and five-fold contrast in the tongue-height: high, lower-high, lower-mid and low. Every vowel has a nasalized counterpart in the language.
Syllables
Syllable division in a word is predictable in Sindhi. Word stress is also predicted on the strength of the syllable structure. Sindhi is primarily an open-syllable language, i.e. syllables mostly end with a vowel or semivowel. Words in Sindhi mostly have vocalic ending and the occurrence of consonant cluster is also sporadic in the language. Close syllables are very infrequent in the language.
A syllable in Sindhi consists of at least one vowel or at most five sound units, in which one is a vowel and others are non-vocalic sounds (consonants or semivowels preceding or following the vowel). Open syllable with a single consonant (CV) are most frequent in the language.
Stress
In Sindhi, stress has only a limited use of demarcating words and putting emphasis on a particular word in an utterance. There are three main stresses: word stress, emphatic stress and drawled stress.
Writing Systems
Sindhi-Arabic Script
Click on the above image to see the complete script.
The Sindhi-Arabic script is adapted from the Persian system of writing, which itself is an adaptation of the Arabic system. Arabic characters are written from right to left. The script comprises of fifty-two characters and seven diacritic signs.
i. Twenty-nine characters of the Arabic script.
ii. Three modified characters adopted from the Persian script:
iii. Twenty modified characters to represent Sindhi sounds:
Retroflex sounds :

Rest: Voiceless Aspirates :

Voiced Aspirates :

Implosive:

Nasal:

Sindhi-Devanagri Script
Click on the above image to see the complete script.
The Sindhi-Devanagari script is adapted from the Sanskrit system of writing. Each character in the Devanagari system represents a syllable. It consists of either a vowel or a consonant followed by the vowel. Devanagari characters are written from left to right.
Character Set Considerations Characteristics
The alphabet of Sindhi is a super set of Arabic, Persian and Urdu languages, and contains 52 basic characters. Additionally there are a few diacritic marks, numerals, and punctuations.
Special characters :
Letters(and), and(in) are also used in text.
Sindhi Numerals
Click on the above image to see all the numerals.
Sindhi numerals are similar to Urdu. Numerals are written left to right. The decimal separator in Urdu numerals is called “ASHARYA” (U+066B) and is similar to “HAMZA” in shape. A dot may also be used in place of “ASHARYA”.
Fonts
Considering the Arabic script, as mentioned earlier, that it being used for writing Sindhi, calligraphic shapes, multiple alternate shapes are possible for a single letter. The shape is determined by the position of the character in a word and/or character next to it.
Character Cell Size
The characters cell height is fixed and can be controlled. The script is a linear script and line height of text can be fixed.
Glyphs to be supported in Sindhi Fonts:
All the basic shapes plus alternate shapes required for a character have to be provided. A single character thus would have at least four or more glyphs for it. The diacritic marks along with special symbols used are provided. The numerals, and punctuations are also provided.
Source: Sindhi Design Guide, Technology Development for Indian Languages

Posted by ALL KARACHI SINDHI JAMAT at 4:04 AM 1 comments

Karachi

 

Karachi

 

 

— City District —
Karachi City District
Province
Sindh
Municipal Committee
1853
Municipal Corporation
1933
Metropolitan Corporation
1976
City District Government
14th August 2001
City Council
City Complex, Gulshan Town
Towns
18
Government [1]
– Type
City District
Area [2]
– Total
3,527 km² (1,356 sq mi)
Elevation
m (26 ft)
Population (2007)[3]
– Total
12,315,843
– Density
3,491.9/km² (9,082.5/sq mi)
Area code(s)
021

Karachi Is one of the most populous cities in the world, the largest city in Pakistan and is theprovincial capital of Sindh province. Located on the coast of the Arabian Sea, north-west of the Indus River Delta, it was the original capital of Pakistan and remains the cultural and economic hub, as well as being the largest seaport of the country. Its leading economic sectors include finance, business services, transportation, media, television production, publishing, software production, medical research, education and tourism.
Spread over 3,530 km², the city and suburbs comprise the world’s twentieth largest metropolitan area.[4] The city credits its growth to the mixed populations of economic and political migrants and refugees from different national, provincial, linguistic and religious origins who have largely come to settle here permanently. It is locally termed as the “City of Lights” (روشنين جو شهر) for its liveliness and the “City of The Quaid” (شهرِ قائد), having been the birth and death place of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, as well as his home after 1947. Residents of Karachi are called “Karachiites”.

History
History of Karachi
The Baloch tribes from Balochistan and Makran established a small settlement of fishing communities, many of whom still inhabit sections of Sindh, and called it Kolachi. The modern port-city of Karachi, however, was developed by authorities of the British Raj in the 19th century. Upon the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the city was selected to become the national capital, and was settled by Muslim refugees from India, which radically expanded the city’s population and transformed the demographics and economy. Karachi has faced major infrastructural and socio-economic challenges, but modern industries and businesses have developed in the city, and the population expanded even after the capital was moved to Islamabad in August 1960.
The area of Karachi has been known to the ancient Greeks by many names: Krokola, the place where Alexander the Great camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia after his campaign in the Indus valley; ‘Morontobara’ port (probably the modern Manora Island near the Karachi harbour), from where Alexander’s admiral Nearchus sailed for back home; and Barbarikon, a sea port of the Indo-Greek Bactrian kingdom. It was also known as the port of Debal to theArabs, from where Muhammad bin Qasim led his conquering force into South Asia in 712 AD. According to the British historian Eliot, parts of city of Karachi and the island of Manora constituted the city of Debal.
The present city started its life as a fishing settlement where a Sindhi fisherwoman by the name of Mai Kolachi took up residence and started a family. The village that later grew out of this settlement was known as Kolachi-jo-Goth (The Village of Kolachi in Sindhi). By the late 1700s this village started trading across the sea with Muscat and the Persian Gulf region which led to its gaining importance. A small fort was constructed for its protection, armed with cannons imported from Muscat. The fort had two main gateways: one facing the sea, known as Khara Darwaaza (Brackish Gate) and the other facing the adjoining Lyari river known as the Meetha Darwaaza (Sweet Gate). The location of these gates corresponds to the present-day city localities of Khaaradar (Khārā Dar) and Meethadar (Mīṭhā Dar)respectively.
In 1795, the village became a domain of the Balochi Talpur rulers of Sindh. A small factory was opened by the British in September 1799, but was closed down within a year. After sending a couple of exploratory missions to the area, the British East India Companyconquered the town on February 3, 1839. The village was later annexed to the British Indian Empire when the province of Sindh was conquered by Charles Napier in 1843. Kolachi was added along with the rest of Sindh to the jurisdiction of the Bombay Presidency.
The British realized its importance as a military cantonment and a port for exporting the produce of the Indus basin, and rapidly developed its harbour for shipping. The foundations of a city municipal government were laid down and infrastructure development was undertaken. New businesses started opening up and the population of the town started rising rapidly. Karachi quickly turned into a city, making true the famous quote by Napier who is known to have said: Would that I could come again to see you in your grandeur!
In 1857, the First Indian War for Independence broke out in the subcontinent and the 21st Native Infantry stationed in Karachi declared allegiance to revolters, joining their cause onSeptember 101857. However, the British were rapidly able to reassert their control over Karachi and defeat the uprising. Karachi was known as Khurachee Scinde (i.e. Karachi, Sindh) during the early British colonial rule.
In 1864, the first telegraphic message was sent from India to England when a direct telegraph connection was laid down between Karachi and London. In 1878, the city was connected to the rest of British India by railway line. Public building projects such as theFrere Hall (1865) and the Empress Market (1890) were undertaken. In 1876, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, was born in the city, which by now had become a bustling city with railway, churches, mosques, courthouses, markets, paved streets and a magnificent harbour. By 1899 Karachi had become the largest wheat exporting port in the east (Feldman 1970:57). The population of the city had also risen to about 105,000 inhabitants by the end of the 19th century and was a cosmopolitan mix of Hindus and Muslims, European traders, JewsParsisIraniansLebanese, and Goan merchants. By the turn of the century, the city faced street congestion, which led to India’s first tramway system being laid down in 1900.
By 1914, Sindh had become a separate province out of the Bombay Presidency and Karachi was made the capital of the new province. By the time the new country of Pakistan was formed in 1947, Karachi had become a bustling metropolitan city with beautiful classical and colonial European styled buildings lining the city’s thoroughfares. Karachi was chosen as the capital city of Pakistan and accommodated a huge influx of migrants and refugees to the newly formed country. The demographics of the city also changed drastically; however, it still maintained a great cultural diversity as its new inhabitants arrived from all parts of the subcontinent. In 1958, the capital of Pakistan was shifted from Karachi to Rawalpindi and then to Islamabad in 1960. This marked the start of a long period of decline in the city, owing to a lack of governmental attention and development. The 1980s and 1990s saw an influx of refugees from the Afghan war into Karachi. Political tensions between the ?groups (descendants of migrants from the partition era) and other groups also erupted and the city was wracked with political and sectarian violence. Most of these tensions have now simmered down.
Karachi continues to be an important financial and industrial centre for the country and handles most of the overseas trade of Pakistan and the central Asian countries. It accounts for a large portion of the GDP of Pakistan and a large chunk of the country’s white collar workers. Karachi’s population has continued to grow and is estimated to have passed the 20 million mark, although official figures still show a population of around 14.5 million. The current economic boom in Pakistan has also resulted in a new period of resurgence in the economy of Karachi.
Geography and climate
Climate of Karachi
Karachi is located in the south of Sindh, on the coast of the Arabian Sea. The city covers an area of approximately 3,530 square kilometres, comprised largely of flat or rolling plains, with hills on the western and northern boundaries of the urban sprawl. Two rivers pass through the city: the River Malir which flows from the east towards the south and centre, and the River Lyari, which flows from north to the south west. The Karachi Harbour is a sheltered bay to the south-west of the city, protected from storms by the Sandspit Beach, the Manora Island and the Oyster Rocks. The Arabian Sea beach lines the southern coastline of Karachi. Dense mangroves and creeks of the Indus delta can be found towards the south east side of the city. Towards the west and the north is Cape Monze, an area marked with projecting sea cliffs and rocky sandstone promontories. Some excellent beaches can also be found in this area.
Located on the coast, Karachi tends to have a relatively mild climate with low levels of average precipitation (approximately 10 inches per annum), the bulk of which occurs during the July-August monsoon season. Winters are mild and the summers are hot, however the proximity to the sea maintains humidity levels at a near-constant high and cool sea breezes relieve the heat of the summer months. Due to high temperatures during the summer (ranging from 30 to 44 degrees Celsius from April to August), the winter months (November to February) are generally considered the best times to visit Karachi. July, December and January have pleasing and cloudy weather when most of the social events, ranging from weddings to charity fundraisers, frequently take place. Tourists and expatriates visit Karachi in these months, Highest recorded is 47.8°C and lowest is 0°C.[5]
Karachi temperatures
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Avg. high (in °C)
25
26
29
35
35-40
35-40
33
31
31
38-42
31
27
Avg. low (in °C)
13
14
19
23
26
28
27
26
25
30
18
14
Government
Mayors of Karachi

Location of Karachi in the Province of Sindh, Pakistan
The City of Karachi Municipal Act was promulgated in 1933. Initially the Municipal Corporation comprised the mayor, the deputy mayor and 57 councilors. The Karachi Municipal Corporation was changed to a Metropolitan Corporation in 1976. The administrative area of Karachi was a second-level subdivision known as Karachi Division, which was subdivided into five districts: Karachi Central, Karachi East, Karachi South, Karachi West and Malir. In 2000, the government of Pakistan designed a new devolution ;’financial resources and responsibilities. This plan abolished the earlier second-level division and merged the five districts of Karachi into a Karachi District. When the devolution plan was implemented in 2001, this district officially became a City District, with the City District Government of Karachi handling its government. Karachi now has a three-tier federated system, formed by:
The City District Government (CDG)
Town Municipal Administrations
Union Council Administrations
The City District of Karachi is divided into eighteen towns governed by elected municipal administrations responsible for infrastructure and spatial planning, development facilitation, and municipal services (water, sanitation, solid waste, repairing roads, parks, street lights, and traffic engineering), with some functions being retained by the CDG.
The towns are sub-divided into 178 localities governed by elected union councils (UC’s), which are the core element of the local government system. Each UC is a body of thirteen directly elected members including a Nazim (mayor) and a Naib Nazim (deputy mayor). The UC Nazim heads the union administration and is responsible for facilitating the CDG to plan and execute municipal services, as well as for informing higher authorities about public concerns and complaints.
In the local body elections of 2005, Syed Mustafa Kamal was elected City Nazim of Karachi to succeed Naimatullah Khan & Nasreen Jalil was elected as the City Naib Nazim. Mustafa Kamal was the provincial minister for information technology in Sindh before assuming office as the city’s mayor. His predecessor, Naimatullah Khan was chosen as one of the best mayors in Asia.[6] Mustafa Kamal is advancing the development trail left by Naimatullah Khan, and has been actively involved in maintaining care of the city’s municipal systems.[7]
Baldia Town
Bin Qasim Town
Gadap Town
Gulberg Town
Gulshan Town
Jamshed Town
Kemari Town
Korangi Town
Landhi Town
Liaquatabad Town
Lyari Town
Malir Town
New Karachi Town
Orangi Town
Saddar Town
Shah Faisal Town
SITE Town
North Nazimabad Town
Note: Defence Housing Society Karachi is located in Karachi but is not a town of Karachi nor part of any town of Karachi. It is administered by the Defence Housing Authority, Karachi ofPakistan Army.
Demographics
Demographics of Karachi
Year
Urban Population
1856
56,875
1872
56,753
1881
73,560
1891
105,199
1901
136,297
1911
186,771
1921
244,162
1931
300,799
1941
435,887
1951
1,068,459
1961
1,912,598
1972
3,426,310
1981
5,208,132
1998
9,269,265
2007
12,315,843[3]

Trend of population growth (in millions) in Karachi
The population and demographic distribution in Karachi has undergone numerous changes over the past 150 years. Non-governmental and international sources estimate Karachi’s current population at about 20 million— a huge increase over its population in 1947 (400,000). The city’s population is currently growing at about 5% per year (mainly on account of rural-urban internal migration), including an estimated 45,000 migrant workers coming to the city every month from different parts of Pakistan. Karachi is one of the largestmegacities in the world.
Before Pakistan‘s independence, Karachi had large communities of ParsisJewsHindus,ChristiansBalochisGujaratis, and Sindhis. After independence, Muslim refugees settled in Karachi. Likewise, a large number of Hindus left the city for India. Predominantly SINDHI speaking, known as formed the dominant ethnic group in Karachi. SINDHI originated from different parts of India and brought with them their local cultures and cuisines, thus further adding to the already diverse mix of people that earlier inhabited Karachi. Currently, these older groups of people and continuing migration from different parts of Pakistan have contributed to a rich and diverse mix of people that live in Karachi. This has given the city a very metropolitan character, and has earned it the title as the “Melting Pot of Pakistan”.[citation needed]
The new government of the Pakistan Muslim League allotted most of the property left over by the departing Hindus and other groups to the Indian immigrants in order to help them settle into the new country. However, the large number of Muhajirs also formed the dominant political majority in the city, which gave them substantial political clout, to the chagrin of the earlier provincial Sindhi and Balochi inhabitants. Also, the vagaries of mass migration of populations between the two newly independent countries gave rise to ethnic tensions which have surfaced in Karachi from time to time.
Since 1979, due to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and continued upheavals in their country, a steady stream of Afghan refugees have also taken up permanent residence in and around Karachi. These refugees now number more than one million and themselves consist of a number of ethnic groups: PakhtunsTajiksHazarasUzbeks, and Turkmen. There are also hundreds of thousands of ArabsIraniansFilipinosArakani refugees (from Rakhine State in Myanmar), BosnianAlbanianPolishLebaneseArmenianGoanBengali andAfrican immigrants who are also settled in Karachi. Most refugee minorities of the city live in poor neighbourhoods.
Economy

Economy of Karachi
Karachi is the financial capital of Pakistan; it accounts for the lion’s share of GDP and revenue. It generates over 60% of the total national revenue (federal and provincial taxes, customs and surcharges).[10] Karachi produces about 42 percent of value added in large scale manufacturing. In February 2007, the World Bank identified Karachi the most business-friendly city in Pakistan.[11]
Most of Pakistan’s public and private banks are headquartered on Karachi’s I.I. Chundrigar Road, while most major foreign multinational corporations operating in Pakistan have their headquarters in Karachi. The Karachi Stock Exchange is the largest stock exchange in Pakistan, and is considered by many economists to be one of the prime reasons for Pakistan’s 8% GDP growth across 2005.[citation needed] During the 1960s, Karachi was seen as an economic role model around the world, and there was much praise for the way itseconomy was progressing. Many countries sought to emulate Pakistan’s economic planning strategy and one of them, South Korea, copied the city’s second “Five-Year Plan” and World Financial Centre in Seoul is designed and modeled after Karachi.[citation needed]
The Port of Karachi and nearby Port Qasim are the two main seaports of Pakistan, andJinnah International Airport is the largest & the busiest airport in Pakistan.
Recently, Karachi has seen an expansion of information and communications technology andelectronic media and has become the software outsourcing hub of Pakistan. Call centres for foreign companies have been targeted as a significant area of growth, with the government making efforts to reduce taxes by as much as 80% in order to gain foreign investments in the IT sector.[citation needed]
Many of Pakistan’s independent television and radio channels are based in Karachi includingGeoARYHumAAJ TVCNBC Pakistan and Dawn News as well as several local stations.
Karachi has several large industrial zones such as SITE, Korangi, Northern Bypass Industrial Zone, Bin Qasim and North Karachi located on the fringes of the main city.[citation needed] The primary areas are textiles, pharmaceuticals, steel, and automobiles. In addition, Karachi has a vibrant cottage industry and there is a rapidly flourishing Free Zone with an annual growth rate of nearly 6.5%.
The Karachi Expo Centre hosts many regional and international exhibitions.[citation needed]
Karachi has branches of major motor companies such as ToyotaHonda,BMW,Audi,Porsche,Mercedes,Rolls RoyceNissan and Suzuki, as well as the Adam Motor Company and HinoPak.[citation needed]
There are many development projects proposed, approved and under construction in Karachi city. Among projects of note, Emaar Properties is proposing to invest $43bn (£22.8bn) in Karachi to develop Bundal Island, which is a 12,000 acre (49 km²) island just off the coast of Karachi.[citation needed] The Karachi Port Trust is planning a Rs. 20 billion, 1,947 feet (593 m) high Port Tower Complex on the Clifton shoreline.[12][13] It will comprise a hotel, a shopping centre, an exhibition centre and a revolving restaurant with a viewing gallery offering a panoramic view of the coastline and the city.
Other projects include: MCB Tower (completed), Crescent Bay, Karachi (under construction), Karachi Waterfront (approved), Karachi Creek Marina (under construction), Sugarland City(approved), Dolmen Towers (under construction), I.T. Tower (approved), Buddo Island(approved), Square One Towers (under construction), Sign Tower (approved), Karachi Mass Transit System, Enshaa Towers (approved), Karachi FPCCI Tower (proposed), City Centre(proposed), Malir Expressway (proposed), Northern Bypass Industrial Area (under construction).
Culture
Cinema in Karachi
Karachi is home to some of Pakistan’s important cultural institutions. The National Academy of Performing Arts[14] located in the newly renovated Hindu Gymkhana offers a two year diploma course in performing arts that include classical music and contemporary theatre. The All Pakistan Musical Conference, linked to the 45-year old similar institution in Lahore, has been holding its Annual Music Festival since its inception in 2004. The Festival is now a well-established feature of the city life of Karachi that is awaited anxiously and attended by more than 3000 citizens of Karachi as well as people from other cities.[citation needed]
The National Arts Council (Koocha-e-Saqafat) also has musical performances and Mushaira(poetry recitations). Karachi has a few museums including the Mohatta Palace Museum that regularly has exhibitions as well as the National Museum of Pakistan. The Kara Film Festivalorganized annually showcases independent Pakistani and international films and documentaries.
The everyday lifestyle of Karachi differs substantially from that of other Pakistani towns. The culture of Karachi is characterized by the blending of Middle EasternSouth Asian andWestern influences, as well as the status of the city as a major international business centre. As a whole, there is considerable diversity in culture, and this diversity has produced unique cultural amalgam of its own type. Karachi also hosts the largest middle class stratum of the country.
Education
List of educational institutions in Karachi and List of universities in Karachi
The Narayan Jagannath High School at Karachi was the first government school established in Sindh. It was opened in October 1855. Karachi has well known educational institutes of international standards. Most universities of Karachi are considered to be amongst the premier educational institutions of Pakistan.
The University of Karachi, simply referred as KU is the second largest university in Pakistan having one of the largest faculties in Karachi. Coincidentally it is located besides the NED University, the oldest engineering institute of Pakistan. Karachi is also host to the Institute of Business Administration (IBA), founded in 1955 and the oldest business school outside North America. Alumni of IBA include former Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz. Other notable universities include the Virtual University of Karachi (introduced by the Science and Technology Ministry), Hamdard University, Szabist (Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology), Agha Khan Medical University, Iqra University and Institute of Business and Technology (BIZTEK) and Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture (IVSAA) one of the most renowned architecture universities of Pakistan.
Sports
Cricket is the most popular sport of the city, and is usually played in many small grounds around the city. Gully cricket, is played in the narrow by-lanes of the city. Night time cricket which can be seen at weekends when people play brightly lit night matches on less traversed city streets. The major venue for cricket matches is the National Stadium but matches are also hosted at the UBL Sports Complex, The A.O. Cricket Stadium, the KCCA Cricket Ground, the Karachi Gymkhana Field and the DHA Cricket Stadium.
The other popular sports are hockeyboxingassociation footballgolftable tennis,snookersquash, and horse racing. Other sports like badmintonvolleyball and basketball are also famous in school and colleges.
Football is especially famous in Lyari Town which has always been a football-mad locality in Karachi. The Peoples Football Stadium is perhaps the largest football stadium in Pakistan with respect to capacity, easily accommodating around 40,000 people. In 2005, the city hosted the SAFF Cup Football Tournament at this ground, as well as the Geo Super Football League 2007 which made the stadium reach full capacity during the matches.
The city also has facilities for hockey (the Hockey Stadium of Pakistan, UBL Hockey Ground), boxing (KPT Sports Complex), squash (Jehangir Khan Squash Complex) and football (People’s Football Stadium and the Polo Grounds). Marinas and Boating Clubs also add to the diverse sporting activities in Karachi.
Karachi has a number of sporting clubs such as the Karachi Gymkhana, the Sindh Club, the Karachi Club, Kashmir club, Aga Khan sports club, the Muslim Gymkhana, the Creek Club and the DHA Club that provide sporting facilities to their members, including tennis, badminton and squash courts, swimming pools, jogging tracks, gymnasiums, billiards and much more. There are two world class golf clubs, at DHA and Karsaz.

Sites of interest
Major attractions
Mazar-e-Quaid – tomb of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan
Mohatta Palace and museum
Lady Lloyd pier at Bin Qasim park
Karachi Port Authority’s Water Jet fountain
Agha Khan University hospital – for its modernist Islamic architecture
Baghe-ibn-e-Qassim,Karachi is the Largest Park in Asia and one of the most Beautiful Park of the World
Masjid e Tooba – largest single-domed mosque in the world[citation needed]
Beaches and Waterfront
Clifton Beach
Beach Park
Jehangir Kothari Parade
Hawke’s Bay Beach – breeding ground for endangered turtles
Paradise Point – rock promontory in the sea with a natural arch
Sandspit Beach
French Beach
Museums
Pakistan Air Force Museum
Karachi Expo Centre
PIA Planetarium
Karachi Stock Exchange Building
National Museum of Pakistan
Koocha-e-Saqafat (National Arts Council)
Pakistan Maritime Museum
WWF Wetland center at Sandspit
Colonial Buildings
Merewether Tower
Frere Hall
Saint Patrick’s Cathedral, Karachi
Sindh High Court
National Academy of Performing Arts
Empress Market
Radio Pakistan Building
Islands
Clifton Oyster Rocks
Bhit Shah Island
Buddo Island
Bundal Island
Churma Island
Manora Island
Clubs
Dreamworld Family Resort
The Arena
Area 51
Karachi Boat Club
Creek Club
Marina Club
Arabian sea country club
DHA Golf club
Sindh club
Karachi club
Hindu Gymkhana
Muslim Club
Amusement Parks
Aladdin Amusement Park
Sindbad Amusement Park
Safari Park
Hill park
Kozi Water park
Sun Way Lagoon Water Park
Fiesta Amusement Parks
Go-Aish Park
Beach Park
Askari Park
Famous Avenues
Zamzama Avenue (famous for its designer outlets & clubs)
Beach Avenue
Karsaz Road (Karachi’s pride)
II Chundrigar Road (Karachi’s Wall Street)
Shahrah-e-Faisal
Tariq Road (Shopping street)
Food
Burns Road[15]
Boat Basin
Hassan Square
North Nazimabad
Zamzama,Khada Market
Clifton Beach recently suffered a recent oil spill disaster, the beach has been cleaned and has floodlights installed for night time visitors. The government has embarked on the beautification of Karachi’s coastline by building a Beach park in Clifton that will eventually be connected to the Jehangir Kothari parade and Bagh Ibn- Qasim.[citation needed]
Shopping

International Food chains in Karachi
Karachi is dotted with many shopping areas, large and small, attracting large crowds of shoppers in the evenings. Saddar, Gulf Shopping Mall, Bahadurabad, Tariq Road, Zamzama, Zaib-un-nissa Street (Elphinestone Street) Hyderi and Waterpump (Anarkali Bazar) are the most famous shopping areas in the city. One can find all sorts of clothing, garments, and fabrics in Karachi’s bazaars, as well as a number of other items. The Saddar area in downtown Karachi is also home to countless large and small markets dealing from everyday household items to clothing and fabrics to electronics. Empress Market in Saddar is a large Victorian-era market, home to wholesalers of spices and other items. Saddar is also home to the Rainbow Centre, one of the largest hubs of pirated CDs in the world. Some other notable shopping areas include Paposh Market and Hydari.
Some of the major shopping malls in Karachi are:
Dolmen City (Sea-View,Cilfton)
Millennium Mall (Located in Gulistan-e-Jauher}
Park Towers (Located in Clifton)
D’mart (Sea View) ]
Saima Mall (Hyderi)
Al-Madini Mall (Hyderi)
Dolmen Mall (Hyderi)
Magna Mall (Located in Gulistan-e-Jauher)
Dolmen Mall (Located on Tariq Road)
Makro Supermart (S.I.T.E)
Makro Supermart (Shara-e-fasial)
Agha Store (Located in Clifton)
Rhim Jhim Mall (Gulshan)
Lavish Mall (Located on Tariq Road)
Jumeirah Mall (Located on Tariq Road)
Naheed Super Market (Located near Tariq Road)
The Forum (Located in Clifton)
Dolmen Center (Located on Tariq Road)
Centarum Mall (Gulshan)
Aladdin Mall (Gulshan,Aladdin Park)
ARY Cash & Carry (Located in Gulistan-e-Jauher)
Hyderi Shopping District (Hyderi,North Nazimabad)
Some of the main bazaars in Karachi:
Tariq Road Bazaar
Zamzama Boulevard (Located in the Clifton/DHA area, various local/western stores including Costa Coffee, Copper Kettle, Dejavu, Roasters, Arizona Grill, Okra etc.)
Gulf Area Market (many traditional vendors and more upscale boutiques and designer shoes)
Zainab Market
Liaqat Abad Bazar
Sadar Bazar
Cilton, Schon Circle
Hyderi Bazaar (North Nazimabad)
Anarkali Bazar (Water Pump)
Transportation
The Jinnah International Airport is located in Karachi. It is the largest and busiest airport of the country. It handles 10 million passengers a year. The airport also receives the largest number of foreign airlines, a total of 27 airlines fly to Jinnah International predominantly from the Middle East and South East Asia. All of Pakistan’s airlines use Karachi as their Primary hub including Pakistan International AirlinesAero Asia InternationalAirblue andShaheen Air.
The city’s old airport terminals are now used for Hajj flights, cargo facilities, and ceremonial visits from heads of state. U.S. Coalition forces used the old terminals for their logistic supply operations as well. The city also has two other airstrips used primarily by the armed forces.
Karachi has the largest shipping ports in Pakistan at the Port of Karachi and Port Qasim. These seaports have modern facilities and not only handle trade for Pakistan, but also serve as ports for Afghanistan and the land-locked Central Asian countries. Plans have been announced for new passenger facilities at Karachi Port.
Karachi is linked by rail to the rest of the country by the Pakistan Railways. The Karachi City Station and Karachi Cantonment Station are the city’s two major railway stations. The railway system handles a large amount of freight to and from the Karachi port apart from providing passenger services to people travelling up country. Plans are underway to extend the intra-city railway system to play a part in the city’s mass transit through Karachi Circular Railway system. Currently, primarily motorists and minibuses handle commuter traffic, but there are plans to construct a light-rail based mass transit system in the city to decongest the roads and provide quick service to commuters.
Real Estate
Karachi is located in semi-arid coastal desert area with very limited agriculture land along the two small seasonal rivers, Lyari River and Malir River that pass through the city. Before independence, the area around Karachi had sparse Balochi nomadic and fishing population and most of the land was state owned. At the time of independence, Karachi was chosen as the first capital of Pakistan and the land area came under tight state control. According to the data prepared by the Master Plan and Environmental Control Unit of the Karachi Development Authority (KDA) in 1988, nearly 400,000 acres (1600 km²) of the 425,529 acres (1722 km²) that make up Karachi’s metropolitan area is in some form of public ownership. Government of Sindh owns 137,687 acres (557 km²), KDA 124,676 acres (504.5 km²), Karachi Port Trust (KPT) 25,259 acres (102 km²), Karachi Metropolitan Corporation(KMC) 24,189 acres (98 km²), Army Cantonment Board 18,596 acres (75 km²), Pakistan Steel Mills 19,461 acres (79 km²), Defence Housing Society 16,567 acres (67 km²), Port Qasim 12,961 acres (52 km²), Government of Pakistan 4,051 acres (16 km²) and Pakistan Railways 3,119 acres (13 km²). In late 1990s the undeveloped land belonging to KDA was transferred to the Malir Development Authority (MDA) and Lyari Development Authority(LDA).[16] The Defence Housing Authority has purchased 12,000 acres (49 km²) of land from the Sindh government along the Super Highway and will build Phase II of Defence Housing Society.[
Challenges
As one of the most rapidly growing cities in the world, Karachi faces challenges that are central to many developing metropolises including overcrowding, traffic, pollution, poverty and street crimes.
The traffic and pollution is a major challenge for Karachi as it is for almost all the major cities in the world. The level of air pollution in Karachi is estimated to be 20 times higher than World Health Organization standards. A number of new parks have been developed and new trees are being planted in the city to improve the environment and reduce the pollution.
Criminal negligence plagues the rapidly expanding infrastructure. There were floods reported in the city during the monsoon of 2007. The Northern Bypass bridge collapsed on 1st September 2007 after being inaugurated only one month back by President Pervez Musharraf.
Despite several efforts, the crime rate is rising and car and cell phone snatching has become an everyday scene. Due to its negligible cultural activities, traffic congestions and high crime rate, Karachi has been ranked fourth among the least livable cities in a survey by The Economist.[

List of Union Councils of Karachi
List of mayors of Karachi
List of people from Karachi
List of famous streets of Karachi
List of universities in Karachi
List of colleges in Karachi
List of schools in Karachi
List of libraries in Karachi
List of hospitals in Karachi
List of parks in Karachi
List of sports venues in Karachi
List of Movie theaters in Karachi
List of Postal Codes of Karachi
List of Cemeteries in Karachi
List of Police Stations in Karachi
List of tallest buildings in Karachi
List of Lawyers in Karachi

Posted by ALL KARACHI SINDHI JAMAT at 3:58 AM 0 comments

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