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July 2, 2013

 

 

 

Mughal tribe

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Mughal

A photo from ‘The People of India’, published from 1868 to the early 1870s by WH Allen, for the India Office

Timur (Tamerlane)  · Babur Baig  · Humayun Baig  ·Akbar Baig  · Shah Jahan  · Aurangzeb  · Bahadur Shah I  · Akbar Shah  · Mumtaz Mahal
Total population
2,666,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
South Asia[citation needed]
Languages

• Sindhi[citation needed] • Urdu •Punjabi[citation needed] • Bengali[citation needed] •

Religion

• Allah-green.svg Islam 100% •

Related ethnic groups

• Turkic peoples[citation needed] • Indo-Aryans[citation needed]

The Mughal ( Arabic: مغول (Urdu مُغل), (Persian: مغول‎, are a number of culturally relatedclans of IndiaPakistanAfghanistan, and Bangladesh.[citation needed] In theory, the Mughals of South Asia are descended from the various Central Asian Turkic armies and immigrants that settled in the region from the early Middle Ages onwards.

Contents

  [hide

History and origin[edit]

The third Mughal Emperor Akbar leads his armies during the Siege of Ranthambore in the year 1569.

Mughal warriors practicing horse archery. (Akbarnama)

In theory, all those who claim Mughal ancestry are descendents of various Central AsianTurco-Mongol armies that invaded Iran and South Asia, from Genghis Khan to Timur to Baburand beyond. But the term has always had a wider meaning. According to Bernier, a Frenchtraveler who visited India during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb:

In medieval period, descendants of various armies that conquered South Asia underBabar were called Mughals. The term was also used for later immigrants from Iran, theQizilbash community.

The court itself consisted of a medley of most Uyghur and some Turkman/Uzbeks,Persians and Central Asian Turks, or descendants of all these classes; known, as said before by the general appellation Mughal by the Muslims of native origin.

François BernierBernier’s Travels in the Mogul Empire, 1891

As early as the 17th century, the term Mughal covered a large number of groups. Generally, all Central Asian immigrants toIndia, whether UzbekChughtaiBarlasDouliKipchak,Kazakhs, Turkman, Kyrgyz, Uyghurs were referred to as Mughal. The term was also used for later immigrants from Iranand Caucasus, such as the famous Qizilbash community.

In North India, the term Mughal refers to one of the four social groups that are referred to as the Ashraaf.[2] In Pakistan, a number of tribal groupings such as the Tanoli in North West Frontier Province and the Gheba and Kassar in Punjab claim Mughal ancestry. Sir Denzil Ibbetson, the eminent Britishstudent of Punjabi tribal structures, noted a tendency among many tribes of the Pothohar and Upper Hazara regions of Northern Pakistan to claim Mughal ancestry.[3]

In accordance with the basic history provided that various Central Asian armies that invaded Iran is A sidepart knowledge. By some Arab Writers, those people who are known as Mughals were those people which are very intelligent in any field of life in Arab in the Khilafat of Hazrat Umer R.A.

Clans[edit]

The Chagatai Khanate and its neighbors in the late 13th century

The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan attends the marriage procession of his eldest sonDara Shikoh. Mughal-Era fireworks were utilized to brighten the night throughout the wedding ceremony.

A Mughal family.

The three clans that the original Mughal immigrants belonged to were theChughtai and Douli and Barlas.[3] In Pakistan their main clans are theQazilbashTurkmenTurkUzbek, Kai and Chak, while in Punjab and on the border between NWFP and Kashmir, the main clans are the Barlas Douli andChughtai.[4] There are also a number of other tribal groupings who claim Mughal ancestry. Here is a brief description of the five main Mughal clans found in South Asia.

References ^ a b A Study of the Ancient Turkic “TARQAN”, Han-Woo Choi, Handong University ^ Leland Liu Rogers – The Golden Summary of Cinggis Qayan: Cinggis Qayan-u Altan Tobci, p.80 ^ a b Paul Ratchnevsky – Genghis Khan: his life and legacy, p.82 ^ a b Qarīb, Badr-az-Zamān. 1995. Sogdian dictionary: Sogdian – Persian – English. Tehran: Farhangan Publ. ^ Doerfer, G. 1993 “Chaladschica extragottingensia”, Central Asiatic Journal, Vol. 37, No. 1-2, pp. 33-81. Excerpt from page 43 ^ a b Agustí Alemany, Sources on the Alans, Brill Academic Publishers, 2000. Excerpt from page 328: ” Abaev considers this word (lacking in a Turco-Mongolian etymology), as well Old Hungarian tarchan “olim judex”, borrowing from Scythians (Alans) *tarxan “judge” -> Ossetian. Taerxon “argument, trial”; cf. the Ossete idioms taerxon kaenyn “to judge” (+ kӕnyn “to do”) and tӕrxon lӕg “judge” (+l ӕg man). Iron ævzag

Douli[edit]

Tha word Douli Clan of Mughal actually came from Delli, because they are descendant from a delli or a dalla. The Douli’ are found mainly along line of control in the villages of Hajira, Dara Sher Khan, Mandhole, Abbaspur, Serarri as well Rawalakot town in Poonch District. Other than that Douli’live in N.W.F.P Hazara likely Haripure district Mostly in Village Ghazi, and District Sawabi, speak Hindko.Others They are Pahari speaking, as are most Poonch District tribes. The Douli clan are not considered to be the purest Mughal tribe in the sub continent.

Chughtai[edit]

The name Chughtai is a distorted form of Chaghadai, which means Chagan (white) and the suffix –dai The word Chaghadai thus means he who is white. Chugtai Khan was the second son of Changez Khan. The mother of Babar, the founder of the Mughal dynasty in South Asia, belonged to the Chughtai clan.

The Chughtai are perhaps the most widespread of any of the Mughal clans in South Asia; many came to parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan and India accompanying Babar. An earlycensus of India conducted by British colonial authorities rather unsurprisingly showed the greatest concentrations of Chughtai to be in Delhi, the centre of Mughal power, inLucknow, the capital of the Nawabs of Awadh, in the townships of western Uttar PradeshKashmir, in north eastern Hazara and in Punjab (India).

They remain the largest of the Mughal clans and are found throughout in north easternHazaraPunjab and Sindh in Pakistan.

Barlas[edit]

The Barlas trace their origin to Qarchar .The leading clan of the Barlas tribe traced its origin to Qarchar Barlas, head of one of Chaghadai’s regiments.

The Barlas formed a significant part of the Mughal population in South Asia. Like the Chaghatai, the Barlas were concentrated in cities such as LahorePakistan, a major centre of the Mughal Empire, and a smaller number are believed to have settled in Lukhnow. They are normally found in between the north eastern border between Hazara and Azad Kashmir, in Punjab and in Sindh provinces ofPakistan.Some family of Mughal Barlas has been settled on the bank of river jhelum and adopted the profession of boats, one of the name Haji Ahmed, commonely known as Choudary Haji in Jhelum city.The small numbers of barlas family had settled down in district Gujrat on the bank of Jhelum river. The main villages were Chak Nazar, Khardayala, Mong Rasool, Pandoori Mughlah, Thatti Mughlah, Qazi Chak, Mughlah Chak and in Chakwal, the village Malhar Mughlah. This family owned 3000 hectres of land, having a strong family ties.One of the Mughal Barlas Family had shifted to District Jhelum in the village of Aima Afghana, a small village on the main road from Jhelum to Mangla Dam. Mirza Khan Muhammad, Mirza Doust Muhammad, and Mirza Gul Muhammad were the leading heads of the family.This Barlas family adopted the art of cultivation as well as the Government jobs and well known due to its high sustainable attitudes. The Barlas clan are considered to be the purest Mughal tribe in the sub continent.

Qizilbash[edit]

The term Qizilbash refers to a number of tribes who had helped Shah Ismail I to defeat the Aq Qoyunlu. As these tribes were by far the most important in number and influence, the name Kizilbash is usually applied to them only.[5] Some of these greater Turcoman tribes were subdivided into as many as eight or nine clans and included the:

Other tribes, such as the Turkman, Bahārlu, Qaramānlu, Warsāk,or Ustādjlu, were occasionally listed among these “seven great Aymaqs”, or confederation of the Qizilbash.

Population estimates vary from 800,000 to 3,000,000 people who are descendants of the Qizilbash. They established several settlements principally in Pakistan in medieval times, as well as in the urban centres of Afghanistan. Entire villages and sometimes districts were settled by the Qizilbash where many of their descendants can still be found to this day.

In Pakistan, the Qizilbash are predominantly Twelver Shia with a significant Hanafi Sunni minority. The Qizilbash are an influential group found in almost all segments of Pakistani society, particularly in the fertile provinces of PanjabNorth-West Frontier Province,Balochistan and Sindh. There are sizeable populations in the cities of KarachiMultanLahorePeshawarQuettaSialkotHyderabadand Rawalpindi.

In India, the Qizilbash are found mainly in Lukhnow, where many prominent Qizilbash families were closely connected with the regime of the Nawabs of Awadh.

Turk[edit]

There are two communities in South Asia, those of Punjab (Pakistan) and those of Uttar Pradesh. The Turks of Uttar Pradesh are a cultivating community found in the districts of RampurAmrohaMoradabadBareilly and in the Terai region. These Turks are descendants of Turkish soldiers who were said to have been settled along the slopes of the Himalaya by the medieval Mohammed Ghori.

Turk of western Uttar Pradesh are recognised by different physical attributes. Sharp eyes, and small Turkmen beard. They are now engaged in varios other professions also such as skilled workers – Tusmani turk, Turki kalal, Turki tailors of western UP, Turki Jojhas, Turki Banjaras, they have moved to these profession due to severe poverty and prosecution iPhone by the subsequent regimes. Recent DNA profile has establsihed these groups of central Asian descendant.

In Punjab, the term Turk refers to any inhabitant of Central Asia, or Turkestan(Currently known as Uyghur Autonomous Region of China), as the region was historically known. The Turks of the Punjab region include the Karlugh Turks of the Hazara Division, also known asUyghur people. In addition to these Turks, there was also a colony of Turks settled in Gurdaspur District who were once said to be the most ferocious warriors of khilji army. They claim descent from Central Asian Turkic soldiers settled in Gurdaspur District by the Khiljisultans.

Turkmen[edit]

Historically, all of the Western or Oghuz Turks have been called Türkmen or derisively Turkoman; however, today the terms are usually restricted to the Turkmen people of Turkmenistan and surrounding area.

The modern Turkmen people descend, at least in part, from the Oghuz Turks of Transoxiana, the western portion of Turkestan, a region that largely corresponds to much of Central Asia as far east as Xinjiang. Oghuz tribes had moved westward from the Altay mountains in the 7th century CE, through the Siberian steppes, and settled in this region. They also penetrated as far west as the Volga basin and the Balkans. A large number of Turkmen clans were settled by the Mughal rulers in North India. The Turkmen now form the principal Mughal clan among the Mughal community of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in North India.

Distribution[edit]

A panorama in 12 folds showing a fabulous Eid ul-Fitr procession by Muslimsin the Mughal Empire.

The Mughal settled all over South Asia. According to theJoshua Project, there numbers were as follows, India(1,617,000),[1] Bangladesh (39,000) Afghanistan (200),Pakistan (1,088,000),[1] and Nepal (1,000). In India, they are found in the following states Uttar Pradesh (624,000),Maharashtra (176,000), Karnataka (138,000), Andhra Pradesh(102,000), Delhi (93,000), Gujarat (77,000), Madhya Pradesh(61,000), Tamil Nadu (41,000) and Bihar (22,000). In Pakistanthey are found in the following provinces, Punjab, (549,000),Azad Kashmir (156,000), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (140,000),Sindh (137,000), Islamabad (43,000) and Baluchistan (900).[1]

In Pakistan, there are several clans that claim Mughal ancestry scattered over SindhPunjabBalochistanNorth-West Frontier Provinceand Pakistan-administered Kashmir, where historically quite a few Central Asian tribes had settled.

Mughals of North India[edit]

The Taj Mahal is one of the greatest examples of Islamic architecture.

The Mughal are found in the states of BiharDelhiGujaratRajasthan and Uttar Pradesh inNorth India.

In Uttar Pradesh[edit]

In Uttar Pradesh (UP), their main clans are the ChughtaiBarlasQazilbashTurkmenTurk,UzbekTajikKai and Chak.[4] The Mughals of Uttar Pradesh belong to both the Sunni andShia sects, with the majority belonging to the Sunni Hanafi sect. Sunni Mughals are usually orthodox in their religious outlook. The Shia Mughal of Awadh trace their entry into the region to the year 1750. The Mughal of UP are an endogamous community, marrying within their own community, or in communities of a similar status such as the Pathan and Muslim Rajput. The rural Mughal are farmers, and many own orchards, especially mango orchards, while in towns they are engaged in trade, handicrafts, and carpet weaving. Carpet weaving is an activity particularly associated with the UP Mughals, .[6]

The Mughal are found in almost every district of Uttar Pradesh. In the Doab region of western Uttar Pradesh, they belong mainly to theTurkmen and Chughtai clans. The Turkman are predominantly Shia, while the Chughtai are all orthodox Sunnis of the Deobandi school of thought. In Saharanpur District, the Mughals are found mainly in Nakur and Saharanpur tehsils, and belong mainly to the Chughtai and Turkmen. The Shia Turkmen of Lakhnauti Turk in Saharanpur District are a prominent family, having settled in the district during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Babar.[7] These Turkmen also extend into the neighbouring Muzaffarnagar District, and are found mainly inBudhana Tehsil.[8] In Bulandshahr District, the main clans are the Qazilbash, Chughtai and Turkmen. Their principal settlement is the village of Mughalpura, about 1 mile (2 km) south west of the city of Bulandshahr. The Mughalpura Mughals are descended from Mirza Bedar Beg, who was said to have been killed by a mad elephant of the Emperor Jahangir, who gave a revenue free grant to his family by way of compensation.[9] In Agra District, they belong mainly to the Chughtai clan, and their main settlement is Chandwar, near the town of Firozabad; they are descended from one Mohammed Beg.[10]

An Mughal nobleman or Sowar on horseback.

In the Rohilkhand region, the Mughals are concentrated mainly in Moradabad District, where they belong mainly to the TurkChughtai and Turkmen clans. They are concentrated inMoradabadBilari and Sambhal tehsils. The Turk clans are found mainly in the Terai region and the Rampur District.[11] After Moradabad, Bareilly District is also home to a large community of Mughals. The Chughtai, Turkmen and Qazilbash are found mainly inNawabganj and Bareilly tehsils, while the Turks are found mainly in Baheri tehsil, which adjoins the neighbouring Terai region.[12]

In Awadh, the Mughal are concentrated in the city of Lukhnow, home to more Mughals then any other region of Uttar Pradesh. The history of the Mughals in Lukhnow is connected with the Nawabs of Awadh, with a large community of Qazilbash being settled in the city in the 18th century. The Qazilbash Nawabs of Behta were a prominent family of Mughal talukdars. Three quarters of the Awadh Mughal are Shia. Other than the Qazilbash, Lukhnow is also home to small numbers of Chughtais with many of the latter being Sunni. The town ofMalihabad, near Lukhnow, is also home to a large community of Chughtai Mughals, whileKakori is home to a small number of Sunni Chughtais.[13] a considerable number of mughals are settled in sultanpur (parvar) area, belonging to mirza aga jan clan – a chugtai warlord responsible for an important mughal military base at mijhora (mirza’s settlement) village along with his brother Mirza Aga Rehman. In India the tribal scrutiny the British government put the mughal military persons in custody and listed the asa criminal tribe because the so many mirza/baig the military officers and dangerous to the British government and British currency hence the British government listed the so many mughal military families frame the charges they are making the fake currency to distribute and down the economy of British government in India. As per the Waajib ul Arz of 1862 of village Jalalabad, Asiwan under Tehsil Hasanganj of District Unnao, it signifies the presence of a Mughal clan from Chaghtai/Barlas branches under the leadership of Mirza Jalal Beg who chose to revolt and side with Kamran Mirza against Emperor Humayun around 1538. This clan picked up a remote area under dense forest across the Jheel of Asiwan after they fled from bank of river Ganges from the area around Bilgram. This clan was further identified and was honored with Jagirs from Emperor Jahangir. As per ‘Mughals of the Dark’ by Shaheer A. Mirza, the area was developed with Mango orchards in coordination with a group of same clan who were settled at Dularmau near Malihabad on the bank of river Behta. Currently the family claims to be in the 22nd generation of Amir Timur though it parted with famous Timurid Dynastyway back during the times of Sultan Mohammad Mirza when he accompanied Zaheeruddin Mohammad Babur during his early inroads well before 1526. The same document reveals that Delhi was under control of Shah Alam II when Saadat Ali Beg started to move branches towards Asiwan.

In Bihar[edit]

In Bihar, the Mughals are found in all the districts with a sizeable Muslim population, especially PatnaDarbhangaMadhubani,MuzaffarpurNalandaNawadaGayaJahanabadMungersasarampirosiwan and other cities. They comprise mainly the urban middle class and are involved in trade and businesses. Many have migrated to large cities like Delhi and Kolkata in search of a livelihood. They are mostly Sunni Muslims. While the Mughal of Darbhanga and Madhubani follow the Salafi and Deobandi aqeedah, the Mughal of Gaya, Nalanda and Nawada are mostly Barelwi Sunnis.

In Delhi[edit]

Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II’s ceremonial procession on the occasion of the Eid ul-Fitr.

The city of Delhi has always been associated with the Mughal, being the seat of the Mughal dynasty that ruled India for four centuries. Their settlements in Old Delhi date back to the 16th century when the first Mughal courtiers arrived with Babar. The Taimuri clan claims direct descent from the Mughal dynasty. Other sub-groups include the ChughtaiTurkman, Changezi,Barlas, and Douli, Bakhst and Qazilbash. A large number of Mughals from old Delhi emigrated toPakistan at partition. A small rump community is left in Delhi. They are still an endogamous community, marrying among themselves, or on occasions with communities of a similar status, such the Sayyid and Pathan. The Taimuri are Sunni, while the Qazilbash and Turkmen areShia.[14]

In Rajasthan[edit]

The Mughal of Rajasthan are concentrated in Bikaner District and in the adjoining districts ofJaipur and Jodhpur. They claim to be descendants of Mughal soldiers and revenue collectors As Representative of mughal Derbar (DEWANS) in the service of the various Rajput Rajahs of the region. The community has two sub-divisions, the Balla and Chakda, both of which are endogamous. There are however some cases of hypergamous marriages with neighbouringMuslim Rajput groups. The Mughal are mainly a community of cultivators. Camel carting is an important secondary occupation. They are Sunni Muslims, and unlike other Mughal communities in North India, have a traditional council known as the nayat. The nayat traditionally resolves any disputes within the community. Sadulpur,Rajgarh Dist. Churu (Rajasthan) is having number of mughal faimlies those were migrated from Dehli, Agra, Hansi, Luharu,surajgarh, Narhar, kathlathal and various mughal offices of Rajputana during mughal period .[15]

In Gujarat[edit]

The Mughal community of Gujarat is said to have settled there during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the state was conquered by the Mughals. Historically, the Mughals of Gujarat are descendants of princes, who were granted refuge by Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat (1526–1536) when the Mughal power in Delhi was toppled by Sher Shah Suri. The act of giving refuge to a prince, Mohamed Zaman Mirza, by the Sultan of Gujarat led the invasion of the country by the Emperor Humayun. This Mohamed Zaman brought along many camp followers, from whom a significant portion of the Mughal community descended. A second wave of Mughals arrived with Sultan Hussain of Khurasan, who sought refuge in Gujarat after falling with the Emperor Akbar. The descendants of Sultan Hussain settled in VadodaraSurat and Bharuch. These Indian Mughals are Sunni, and almost all belong to the Taimuri clan. During the 18th century, Iran was in political turmoil as the Safavid dynasty fell from power and the Nader Shah made himself the supreme ruler ofIran. A good many Iranian refugees fled to Gujarat, settling in the ports of Surat and Bharuch. This community is often referred to as the Mirzas, rather the Mughal, and is distinct from other Gujarat Mughals in that they are Shia.[16]

In Maharashtra (Subah Berar)[edit]

The Mughal community of Berar is said to have settled there during the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when the state was conquered by the Mughals Emperor Akbar. Historically, the Mughals of Berar are descendants of prince, granted subah to Sultan Mirza Azam Shah of Berar, Gujaratby the emperor Aurangzeb Alamgeer Mirza Azam Shah family descendant still stay Near Aragaon of Hiwarkhed in 1642 Shahbeg Khan Subedar of berar the Military Halt threefold night stay at Hiwarkhed befor the fortienth child birth of Mumtaz Mahal(Arjumand Banu) when Shahjahan travelled Balapur Fort to Burhanpur. Bulaqi beg Mirza the mamlatdar in 18th century .The Sarkar Narnala Fort under the Haridatry descendant of Mughal Sardar Baig Mirza and also the whole matter related the All Mughal Tombs, Mosque, Sarai, Drgah,the WAKF of Mughals maintained under the Muttawwalliship of Alijah (Mirza Azam) descendant of duccun to delhi because the all property of ancestor tombs, Mosque,Sarai Dargah, etc. Wakf Alalaulad As per AURANGZEB WILL because Mirza AZAM was HAFIZ OF QURAN hence Aurangzeb 100% faith on his beloved son hence the berar mughal family managed. the after independency they are Help less of Wakf Alalaulad. They are now in Sarkar Narnala, [Shapur, Khandesh, Malwa, kalamb,MahoorHiwarkhedAkolaAmravatiKheldapaonarNagpurWardha and the Nandeer. The Mughal community speak Persion,Urdu, mixed with Duccunni Urdu. In terms of sectarian affiliation, the community is split into groups, the Sunni Mirza Baig, as per Alamgeer Nama and Maasre Alamgiri the Mughal of Berar from The sunni sect of Hanfi .The Shia Mughal together with the Shia Sayyid are members of the Hasna Ashri Jamat.[17]

Mughal of Pakistan[edit]

A rare life-size portrait of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir holding a globe, by Abu’l Hasan, Nadir al-Zaman (dated 1617 AD), the Emperor is buried in Lahore.

In Punjab[edit]

The region of Punjab is also home to a large number of Mughal communities. Historically, they were found in the largest numbers in and around the city of the Rawalpindi Division. The Mughal of the Rawalpindi Division belong to local agricultural tribes locally known by their tribal names, such as the GhebaPhaphra and kassar tribes of the Barlas Mughals andChughtai are also found in the Punjab[18] In addition to these agriculture tribes, members of the Lohar community found in the Punjab also claim Mughal ancestry.[19] A brief description of the major tribal groupings in Punjab that claim Mughal ancestry follows. A small townLangrewali, Tehsil Sialkot has chughtai mughal tribe that claim direct lineage from Genghis Khan. A prominent mughal family was the family of Khan Rahim Bux Khan whose son was Khan Karim Bux Khan which was later on settled at Babay Beri a Mohallah in Sialkot City.

Phaphra[edit]

Several tribal groupings in the Pothohar region of PunjabPakistan claim Mughal ancestry[citation needed]. One such tribe are the Phaphra. They occupy a compact area of about 25 square miles (65 km2) at the foot of the Salt Range, east of Pind Dadan Khan inJhelum District in Pakistan.

According to their tradition[citation needed], the tribe came from the direction of Faridkot inPunjab, and settled in the district as traders and agriculturists. The tribe claims descent from a Phaphra who settled in the district in the 15th century .

Gheba[edit]

The Gheba are another tribe from the Pothohar region claim to be Mughal, being one of the principal tribes of the Attock District. They are found mainly in Fateh Jang Tehsil of Attock and claim descent from Gheba khan, who was said to be a Barlas Mughal[20]

Khamb[edit]

The Khamb is another tribe claiming to be Mughal, and found mainly in the Pothohar region of northern Punjab. According to their traditions, the ancestors of the Khamb arrived from Kathiawar, in what is now the modern state of Gujerat in India.

The Khamb were settled in their present abode by a Hashmat Khan, a chief of the Thathal tribe, who are natives of the Pothohar region. This Hashmat Khan was appointed as a garrison commander of Khambhat in Kathiawar by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. When Hashmat returned to the Pothohar region of Pakistan, he was accompanied by members of the garrison at Khambait. He ordered villages to be built named Khambi Qaleechpur and Khanpur, and the Khamb tribe was granted land in and around the new town.[21] At present they live in Khambi Qaleechpur and Khanpur in the Gujrat district of Punjab.

Kassar[edit]

The Kassar are a Mughal tribe and one of the three major land-owning tribes in the Dhani country of Chakwal District in Punjab province,Pakistan.[22] They occupy the northern part of Dhani, called Babial and Chaupeda. According to the Jhelum District settlement report of 1862, they are mentioned as having come from Jammu along with the Mair-Minhas tribe and been settled in this area by the MughalEmperor, Zaheerudin Babur. According to their traditions, they claim descent from a kinsmen of the Emperor Babur, Kassar khan. Who was said to be a Barlas Mughal and a distant cousin of Babur. Chakwal.

Jandran[edit]

The Jandran are a tribe of Mughal status, found mainly JhangKhanewalVehariLodhran and Sargodha districts of Punjab.[3]

Chohan[edit]

The Chohans are a clan from the Rajputs, but there are some Chohans that are a tribe of Mughal status, found only in Lahore.

Other clans[edit]

  • Baig Mughal
  • Mirza Mughal
  • Tarkhan Mughal Royal Mughals
  • Pasha Mughal
  • Ginhal} Mughal
  • Bandey Mughal
  • Mir Mughal
  • Mangval Mughal
  • Langryal Mughal
  • Bich Mughal
  • Ganai Mughal
  • Ashaie Mughal
  • Bub Mughal
  • Ganju Gharhi Mughal
  • Batlla Mughal
  • Babri Mughal
  • Salour Mughal
  • Numbeli mughal (tribe of murree)
  • Manjotha mughal
  • Marrar Mughal Barlas
  • Narwa Mughal
  • Mughalzai
  • Mughal khel
  • Mangal
  • Kiyani Mughal
  • Orya khel
  • Mughal Lal Khail
  • Khan Mughal

In Sindh[edit]

Mughal Aristocracy Hunting a Blackbuckalongside an Asiatic Cheetah.

In Sindh, two Mughal dynasties, the Arghun and Tarkhan, held power for a short periods in the 16th Century. Most of the Sindhi Mughals are descended from these two dynasties, these two dynasties who were later subdued by Babur. Many Sindhi Mughal’s also claim to have arrived in the region during the rebellion of Sher Shah Suriagainst the Mughal heir-apparent Humayun, in fact many Mughal’s settled in Umarkot, and young Akbar was born there. in Sindh the Mughals ruled with the assistance of theKalhora tribe. Among the famous Mughal administrators of Sindh was Mirza Ghazi Beg, during his rule many Sindhi’s entered the service of the Mughal Emperors. Sindh is also home to a large number of Mughals also known as the Lohar (Metalsmith) they can be found in central Sindh particularly in the regions around Kot Diji FortGambatSukkurand Khairpur, and are named after their family profession. Sindh is also home so a few rare Jochid tribes.

A small number of Qazilbash tribesmen settled in Sindh in the during the invasion ofNadir Shah. The Sindhi Mughals are overwhelmingly Sunni, and now entirely speak Sindhi.[23]

The Changizi are Sindhi Mughal tribes found in northern Sindh and are closely associated with the Chughtai tribes. The Changizi claim direct lineage from Genghis Khan and can be found in Larkana and Shikarpur.

Two well known Mughal tribes known to have held power in Sindh are the Arghuns and the Tarkhans (well known for their skills asMetalsmiths). The Arghuns are a mixed Chaghatai and Ilkhanate tribe that was driven out of Central Asia by the Timurids, they amassed in Sindh along with their Tarkhan allies and sacked Thatta and overthrew the Samma Emirs. Both tribes are known to have violated the liberties of the Muslim inhabitants of Sindh and forced local Emirs to desperately seek the assistance of Babur, who dispatched his forces to overthrow most of them. The first Mughal Emperor Babur restored the Emirs and authorized members of the Mughal tribe asSubedars. Today both the Arghuns and the Tarkhans refer to themselves as Mughals despite being overthrown by Babur and later byAkbar.

In Hazara Division[edit]

In Hazara, the Mughals are found in Mansehra district in villages (Behali,(hafiz bandi) BararkotGulli BaghPakhli and Mohandri). InAbbottabad (Aziz Abad,{ Mohar Kalan } [Banda Phagwarian] Kunj Kehal ChatriNamli MairaDobatharTarnawaiRichbhenSolan,jhangiSamesarSultanpurTarari One Mughal clan called Douli. Haripur in Ghazi Tehsil Mankaray Sawabi Topi One Mughal clan called meer. The Tanoli tribe, of the former Amb and Phulra states, are also accounted to be Mughals or Turks. The language spoken by Mughal in Hazara is Hindko. mughals are second noble caste after sayyid.They are also found in Ghanool,Kaghan and Naran.Mughals from these areas are Called Behraji.Mughals often use ‘Khan/Kahn’ in their surname.

  • Mughal
  • Baig
  • Tarkhan
  • Mir Barlas/Tanoli Mogul
  • Mughal
  • Behraji

Mughal of Jammu and Kashmir[edit]

Baig[edit]

The Beg or Baig are said to be the descendents of Mughal soldiers, who were custodians of the treasury. They are an urban community, found in their own quarters in the cities of AnantnagBaramullaBadgamNeelum valley, Muzaffarabad, Jhelum District and borders adjoining with Hazara division Pakistan. According to some traditions, the Baig are in fact descended from Uighur of Kashgar,and many also refer to themselves as Kashgari. They remained a community distinct from other Kashmiri Muslims and were only granted state citizenship in 1939. Many are still involved in their traditional occupation of carpet weaving and embroidery. The Baig are entirely SunniMuslim, and historically affiliated to the Barelvi sect, with many belonging to the Dastigiri Sufi order. A few of the Mughals also follow theDeobandi sect.[24] one of such clans is presently living in village Chogal of Handwara Tehsil, District Kupwara,& descendants of mirza aga jan and Mirza Aga Rehman of Mijhora, dist. Akbarpur – uttar Pradesh, & another one noticed in Karachi i;e Arif Baig Mughal.

Mughal of Jammu and Mirpur[edit]

Babur rallies the Mughal Army

The Mughal of Jammu and Azad Kashmir share many culture similarities with the Mughal ofPunjab. In kotli district and some other districts of AJ&K some mughals migrated here from poonch and rajauri. In 1857 when Englishes[clarification needed] elapsed mughal dynasty, they started brute killing of mughals as they believe there is no enemy except mughals as a sign of peril. To save their lives mughals hidden their identity and pretended to be of different castes. There are number of agrarian tribes, such as the Junhal Maldial and Hoteel who claim Mughal ancestry. These Mughal tribes all claim to have settled in the Jammu andMirpur region during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Babar. The Emperor is said to have settled these tribes as a bulwark against the local Rajput tribes, who were continuously rebelling against the Mughal authority. The Chughtai Mughal families of Jammu city are descended from a Mirza Jan Beg Tarkhan, a Mughal nobleman who fled Delhi after the Indian mutiny of 1857.[25]

The Mughal in the Jammu region are settled mainly in Jammu,Bhadarwah(Distt.Doda)NawsheraRajauri and Poonch. Those of Jammu are a Punjabi speaking community. The Jammu city Lohar Chughtai and Tarkhan Barlas Mughal are an urban community, many of whom migrated to Pakistan at the time of the partition of land in Pakistan & India, an event which also led to the division of Jammu and Kashmir. The Mughal tribes of Rajauri and Poonch region are effectively separated from their kinsmen by the line of control. These division especially affects the Junhal and Tarkhan tribes, who villages are literally bisected by the line of control. The Mughals in Azad Kashmir are found mainly in the southern districts of Mirpur,Rawalpindi, Kotli andBhimber, and are culturally the same as Jammu Mughals. Other than the Chughtai Lohar of Jammu, who are Shia, the other Mughal communities are Sunni, equally divided between Barelvis and Deobandi.[25]

The Mughal of Azad Kashmir and Rajauri-Poonch are an agrarian community, living in mult-community villages and cultivating their own fields. They are not endogamous, marrying into neighbouring Pahari Rajput communities.

Here is a brief descriptions of the main clans:

Mirza Baig[edit]

Mirza title used by many clans of mughal descent. Found mainly in Azad Kashmir and provinces of Punjab. The word Mirza is derived from the Persian term ‘Amīrzāde which literally means “child of the ‘Amīr” or “child of the leader” in Persia and Kurdistan. ‘Amīrzād in turn consists of the Arabic title ‘Amīr (engl. Emir), meaning “commander”, and the Persian suffix -zād, meaning “birth” or “lineage”.

The Barlas clan commonly used the name Baig (also spelt Beg) to identify high-ranked members of their clan. For the Barlas people Mirza was used as a title, and Baig was attached as the surname to all the patriarchs, thus creating the Mirza Baig lineage. (e.g. Mirza Mansur Baig or even Mansur Mirza Baig). The names Mirza and Baig are still used today, to identify Mughal ancestry.Like the families who settled in Jhelum in the village of Chak Nazar use the Mirza and Baig words in the start and end of their actual name,Mirza Arif Beg,Mirza Shaaz Arif Beg,Mirza Shaghil Arif Beg, Mirza Shahzad Baig, Mirza Aslam Baig, General Mirza Rasheed Baig, Dr. Mirza Zamurad Baig, Mirza Yaseen Baig, Mirza Yaqoob Baig etc. (See Baig)

Maldiyal[edit]

This article contains weasel words: vague phrasing that often accompanies biased orunverifiable information. Such statements should be clarified or removed(January 2012)

The Maldiyal are found in Bagh District and Tehsil Abbaspur of Poonch District in Pakistani-administered Kashmir. The Word “Maldyal” is derived from the name of Mirza Moloud Baig, a Chughtai Mughal, who is said to have settled in Poonch in the 15th century.[citation needed] They are one of a number of clans found in the Pothohar region and adjoining areas of Azad Kashmir and Hazarawhich claim Mughal ancestry[citation needed]. Maldiyal are the highest sub castes of mughal mostly found in villages of Birpani, Samni, Dharian, Chatar, kharal maldial (one village in bagh he his named) and Salian of Bagh district. There are many tribes in this sub caste.[citation needed]

Hoteel[edit]

The Hoteel are sub-tribe of Mughal.[citation needed] They are found in Punjab and Azad Kashmir. In Punjab they are scattered in many districts. Hoteel is a huge part of Punjab’s population.[citation needed] In Azad Kashmir this tribe is mainly found in Bangion, Jandala and timrota Rawalakot else. Hoteels are also residing in many other parts of Azad Kashmir.[citation needed] The people of this tribe living inAzad Kashmir speak Pahari. Hoteels called Chughtai as well.[citation needed]

Douli[edit]

The Douli’ are sub clan of Mughals are found mainly along line of control in the villages of Hajira, Dara Sher Khan, Mandhole, Abbaspur, Serarri as well Rawalakot town in Poonch District.Other than that Douli’live in N.W.F.P Hazara likely Haripure district Mostly in Tehsil Ghazi, and District Sawabi, speak Hindko.Others They are Pahari speaking, as are most Poonch District tribes.

Junhal[citation needed][edit]

The Junhal are a tribe found in Poonch District, which is now split by the line of control. They were once a powerful tribe but nearly destroyed by the Gakhars.[citation needed] More than any other tribal grouping in Jammu and Kashmir, the Junhal have been particularly affected by the division of Kashmir, as their villages lie exactly at the line of control, with some now in the Indian zone, while others are in the Pakistani zone.[26]

Khan Mughal[edit]

The Khan Mughal are tribe of Mughal status found in Azad Kashmir, They are locally referred to as Kamagar, which is drove from word Kaman Gar, which means weapon makers in the Persian language. According to their traditions, they were part of the Mughal under the leadership of Babur. They were mainly concerned with manufacturing arms and weapons.[27]

Mughal families of Jammu city are descended from a Mirza Jan Beg, a Mughal nobleman who fled Delhi after the failure of the Indian mutiny of 1857.[25]

Noticeable Mughals[edit]

General Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan Qizilbash, third President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971 /

  • Mirza Aziz Akbar Baig
  • Ishtiaq Baig is Vice Chairman Baig Group Companies a multinational conglomerate engaged in diversified industrial and commercial activities operating in Pakistan, U.A.E. and Morocco.
  • Mir Painda Khan
  • Mir Jehandad Khan
  • Sultan Muhammad Khan of Beer member of 1st British India Parliament (1932)
  • Farid Khan of Beer member of Parliament 1st Parliament of Pakistan 1948,49 up to 1958
  • Muhammad Khan Zaman Khan
  • Muhammad Farid Khan
  • Abdul Rehmaan Mughal, President of Mughal Association Mandhole, Poonch, Azad Kashmir
  • Muhammad Ayub Khan Tanoli former Law and Education minister, President of Bar association three times…
  • Nawabzada Salahuddin Saeed Khan
  • Hakim Taniwal, Governor of Paktia province in Afghanistan
  • Mufti Munib-ur Rehman, President of rohiat e hillaila committee
  • Zaheer Jamshed Ahmed Mughal, President of Mughal Association, Kotli Azad Kashmir and Managing Director of Al Badar Digital colour lab and Haroon Digital Photo studio Kotli Azad Kashmir
  • Saeed khan Mughal Ex Nazam Jhangi Abbottabad.
  • Malik Bashir Hussain Mughal Advocate Ex Member District Council Abbottabad
  • Aurangzeb Khan Mughal Advocate Ex Chairman Union council abbottabad.
  • Naeem Gul Of abbottabad Ex Captain Pakistan Football Team.
  • Tanveer Ahmad Mughal advocate of Abbottabad executive Member supreme court bar association Pakistan.
  • Sultan Shafi Mughal – GM HR – Pepsi, Pakistan Beverage Limited.
  • Muhammad Akram Baig ( late ) Banda Faizullah, Abbottabad.
  • Adeel Ahmad Mughal, Nawan Shehr Abbottabad.
  • Muhammad Shakeel Mughal, Advocate, Lahore.
  • Engr. Adeel Rifaat Mirza, Lecturer, GC University Faisalabad.
  • Muhammad Naveed Mughal, C.E.O Trionics Technologies, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Mirza Fahim Ahmad Baig, C.E.O Kinetix Automation Controls, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Shakeel Mughal, Advocate, Lahore Sardar Pervaiz Akhtar CHughtai, vice president of central union of journalist poonch
  • Dr Munawar Nadeem Chughtai, General Surgeon, Munawar Nadeem Surgical Hospital, Commissioner Road Sialkot[28]
  • Manzoor Ahmed Mughal, Advocate, Daska Autozone, wazirabad Road Daska, Sialkot, Post Code: 51010[29]
  • Shahid Mushtaq Mughal S/O Mushtaq Ahmed Mughal, Sialkot GPO

‘ Zaheer Ahmed Mughal S/O Muhammad Yousaf Mughal Jhand gran Muzaffarabad [cell no 03465394965]

See also[edit]

Muhammad Shakeel Mughal, Advocate, Lahore Sardar Pervaiz Akhtar CHughtai, vice president of central union of journalist poonch dr khaqan haider mughal khaki mughal maira cont no o3469629571 Mirza Aamir Baig Choughtai (Sales & Marketing Professional) Gul Faraz Ahmad Mughal(Nazim Islami Jamiat Talaba KPK)Member central Shora of IJT Pakistan. resedent of sirsyed colony Abbottabad.

References[edit]

  1. a b c d http://www.joshuaproject.net/peoples.php?peo3=13761
  2. ^ Muslim Caste in Uttar Pradesh (A Study of Culture Contact), Ghaus Ansari, Lucknow, 1960
  3. a b c A Glossary of the tribes & castes of Punjab bu H. A Rose
  4. a b Hindustani Musalmans and Musalman Tarkhan Tarkhan Mughals (ترخان مغل) ( in Persian, Tarkhai Mughuli [1] تركهاى مغولى) were those Turko-Mongol people who were aristocrats of the steppe; Princes, Commanders and Generals who ruled and served the Turko-Mongol states and had ancestral origin from Turko-Mongol dynasties especially descendants of Genghis Khan. Turko-Mongols are mainly the descendants of those Turks who were ruled over by the Mongols speaking mostly Turkic languages; they derived their ethnic and cultural origins from both groups. “Turko-Mongol” is used to describe the people of Mongol khanate; Ilkhanate; Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde and sometimes also describe successor Khanates; such as the Khanate of Kazan, the Nogi, Crimean Khanate; Astrakhan Khanate; Empire of Timurid Empire of India; Arghun and Tarkhan Dynasty of Sind Pakistan. Tarkhan mughals Tarkhan This article is about Tarkhan, an ancient Turkic title. For other uses, see Tarkan and Darkhan Tarkhan (Old Turkic Tarqan;[1] Mongolian: Darkhan;[2][3] Persian: ترخان‎; Chinese: 達干; Arabic: طرخان‎; alternative spellings Tarkan, Tarkhaan, Tarqan, Tarchan, Tarxan, Tarcan or Targan) is an ancient Central Asian title used by various Indo-European (i.e. Iranian and Tokharian) and Turco-Mongol peoples, especially in the medieval era, and prominent among the successors of the Mongol Empire. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 In fiction 4 Notes 5 External links Etymology The origin of the word is not known. Various historians identify the word as either Iranian (most likely East Iranian Sogdian or Scythian),[4][5][6] Turkic,[1][7] or Mongolian. Although R. Frye reports that the word “was probably foreign to Sogdian”, hence considered to be a loanword from Turkic, Gerhard Doerfer points out that even in Turkic languages, its plural is not Turkic (sing. tarxan –> plur. tarxat), suggesting a non-Turkic origin.[8] L. Ligeti comes to the same conclusion, saying that “tarxan and tegin [prince] form the wholly un-Turkish plurals tarxat and tegit” and that the word was unknown to medieval western Turkic languages, such as Bulgar.[9] Taking this in consideration, the word is most likely derived from medieval Mongolian darqat (Mongolian plural suffix -at), itself perhaps derived from the earlier Sogdian word *tarxant (“free of taxes”).[8] A. Alemany gives the additional elaboration that the related East Iranian Scythian (and Alanic) word *tarxan still survives in Ossetic tærxon (“argument, trial”) and tærxon kænyn (“to judge”).[6] Harold Walter Bailey also proposes an Iranian (Khotanese Saka) root for the word.[10] What is certain is that Tarkhan is not related to the Turco-Mongol royal title Khan/Khaqan.[4] The word was borrowed into many languages, including Armenian tʿarxan, Georgian t’arxani and Russian тархан. History It was used among the various Iranian (Sogdians, Khotanese, and Hephthalites) and Turco-Mongol peoples of Central Asia and other steppe people, and was a high rank in the army of Tamerlane. Tarkhans commanded military contingents (roughly of regimental size under the Khazar khan) and were, roughly speaking, generals. They could also be assigned as military governors of conquered regions. The Göktürks probably adopted the title of Darqan (Mongolian spelling) from the Mongol-speaking Rourans or Avars.[11] The Tarkhan were cited in inscription of Kul Tigin (d. c.731 CE). They were given high honors such as entering the ger of Khagan without any prior appointment and shown unusual ninefold pardon to the 9th generation from any crime they committed.[12] Although, the etymology of the word is unknown, it is attested under the Khitans who ruled most of Mongolia and North China between 916 and 1125.[13] Like many titles, Tarkhan (Turkic spelling) also occurs as a personal name, independent of a person’s rank, which makes some historical references confusing. For example, Arab texts refer to a “Tarkhan, king of the Khazars” as reigning in the mid ninth century. Whether this is a confused reference to a military official or the name of an individual Khazar khagan remains unclear. The name is occasionally used today in Turkish and Arabic speaking countries. In the Mongol Empire, the Darkhan were exempted from taxation, socage and requisitioning. Genghis Khan made those who helped his rise Darkhans in 1206. The families of the Darkhan played crucial roles later when the succession crisis occurred in Yuan Dynasty and Ilkhanate. Abaqa Khan (1234–1282) made an Indian Darkhan after he had led his mother and her team all the way from Central Asia to Persia safely. A wealthy merchant of Persia was made of Darkhan by Ghazan (1271–1304) for his service during the early defeat of the Ilkhan. In Russia, the Khans of the Golden Horde assigned important tasks to the Darkhan. A jarliq of Temur Qutlugh (ca. 1370–1399) which authorized rights of the Tarkhan found in Crimea.[14] During the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), the title was bestowed mainly on the late Darkhans’ families and the government officials. After suppressing the rebellion of the right three tumens in Mongolia, Dayan Khan exempted his soldiers, who participated the battle of Dalan-Terqin, from imposts and made them Darkhan in 1513. Even after the collapse of the Northern Yuan with the death of Ligdan Khan, the title of Darkhan was bestowed on religious dignitaries, sometimes on persons of low-birth. For example, in 1665, the Khotgoid Altan Khan Lubsan bestowed the title on a Russian interpreter and requested the Russian Tsar to exempt the interpreter from all tax obligations.[3] The word refers the Blacksmith[15] and is still used in Mongolia as privilege.[16] A Tarkhan established the Tarkhan Dynasty, ruling Northern India from 1554 to 1591 AD. In fiction In C. S. Lewis’ Chronicles of Narnia series of novels, the apparent spelling variation Tarkaan is the title of a Calormen nobleman, tarkheena that of a noble woman. Also in Age of Empires II: The Conquerors, the tarkan is the Hun’s unique unit with the appearance of a horseman with a torch in place of sword. Notes This article is about Tarkhan, an ancient Turkic title. For other uses, see Tarkan and Darkhan Tarkhan (Old Turkic Tarqan;[1] Mongolian: Darkhan;[2][3] Persian: ترخان‎; Chinese: 達干; Arabic: طرخان‎; alternative spellings Tarkan, Tarkhaan, Tarqan, Tarchan, Tarxan, Tarcan or Targan) is an ancient Central Asian title used by various Indo-European (i.e. Iranian and Tokharian) and Turco-Mongol peoples, especially in the medieval era, and prominent among the successors of the Mongol Empire. Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 3 In fiction 4 Notes 5 External links Etymology The origin of the word is not known. Various historians identify the word as either Iranian (most likely East Iranian Sogdian or Scythian),[4][5][6] Turkic,[1][7] or Mongolian. Although R. Frye reports that the word “was probably foreign to Sogdian”, hence considered to be a loanword from Turkic, Gerhard Doerfer points out that even in Turkic languages, its plural is not Turkic (sing. tarxan –> plur. tarxat), suggesting a non-Turkic origin.[8] L. Ligeti comes to the same conclusion, saying that “tarxan and tegin [prince] form the wholly un-Turkish plurals tarxat and tegit” and that the word was unknown to medieval western Turkic languages, such as Bulgar.[9] Taking this in consideration, the word is most likely derived from medieval Mongolian darqat (Mongolian plural suffix -at), itself perhaps derived from the earlier Sogdian word *tarxant (“free of taxes”).[8] A. Alemany gives the additional elaboration that the related East Iranian Scythian (and Alanic) word *tarxan still survives in Ossetic tærxon (“argument, trial”) and tærxon kænyn (“to judge”).[6] Harold Walter Bailey also proposes an Iranian (Khotanese Saka) root for the word.[10] What is certain is that Tarkhan is not related to the Turco-Mongol royal title Khan/Khaqan.[4] The word was borrowed into many languages, including Armenian tʿarxan, Georgian t’arxani and Russian тархан. History It was used among the various Iranian (Sogdians, Khotanese, and Hephthalites) and Turco-Mongol peoples of Central Asia and other steppe people, and was a high rank in the army of Tamerlane. Tarkhans commanded military contingents (roughly of regimental size under the Khazar khan) and were, roughly speaking, generals. They could also be assigned as military governors of conquered regions. The Göktürks probably adopted the title of Darqan (Mongolian spelling) from the Mongol-speaking Rourans or Avars.[11] The Tarkhan were cited in inscription of Kul Tigin (d. c.731 CE). They were given high honors such as entering the ger of Khagan without any prior appointment and shown unusual ninefold pardon to the 9th generation from any crime they committed.[12] Although, the etymology of the word is unknown, it is attested under the Khitans who ruled most of Mongolia and North China between 916 and 1125.[13] Like many titles, Tarkhan (Turkic spelling) also occurs as a personal name, independent of a person’s rank, which makes some historical references confusing. For example, Arab texts refer to a “Tarkhan, king of the Khazars” as reigning in the mid ninth century. Whether this is a confused reference to a military official or the name of an individual Khazar khagan remains unclear. The name is occasionally used today in Turkish and Arabic speaking countries. In the Mongol Empire, the Darkhan were exempted from taxation, socage and requisitioning. Genghis Khan made those who helped his rise Darkhans in 1206. The families of the Darkhan played crucial roles later when the succession crisis occurred in Yuan Dynasty and Ilkhanate. Abaqa Khan (1234–1282) made an Indian Darkhan after he had led his mother and her team all the way from Central Asia to Persia safely. A wealthy merchant of Persia was made of Darkhan by Ghazan (1271–1304) for his service during the early defeat of the Ilkhan. In Russia, the Khans of the Golden Horde assigned important tasks to the Darkhan. A jarliq of Temur Qutlugh (ca. 1370–1399) which authorized rights of the Tarkhan found in Crimea.[14] During the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), the title was bestowed mainly on the late Darkhans’ families and the government officials. After suppressing the rebellion of the right three tumens in Mongolia, Dayan Khan exempted his soldiers, who participated the battle of Dalan-Terqin, from imposts and made them Darkhan in 1513. Even after the collapse of the Northern Yuan with the death of Ligdan Khan, the title of Darkhan was bestowed on religious dignitaries, sometimes on persons of low-birth. For example, in 1665, the Khotgoid Altan Khan Lubsan bestowed the title on a Russian interpreter and requested the Russian Tsar to exempt the interpreter from all tax obligations.[3] The word refers the Blacksmith[15] and is still used in Mongolia as privilege.[16] A Tarkhan established the Tarkhan Dynasty, ruling Northern Inof East Punjab by W Bourne page 35
  5. ^ V. Minorsky, “Tadhkirat al-muluk”, London 1943, p. 16-18, p.188
  6. ^ People of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII edited by A Hasan & J C Das page 986 to 990 Manohar Publications
  7. ^ A Gazetteer of Saharanpur District by H. Neville, p. 111
  8. ^ A Gazetteer of Muzaffarnagar District by H. Neville p. 92
  9. ^ A Gazetteer of Bulandshar District by H. Neville, p. 83
  10. ^ A Gazetteer of Agra District by H. Neville, p. 81
  11. ^ A Gazetteer of Moradabad District by H. Neville, p. 79
  12. ^ A Gazetteer of Bareilly District by H. Neville, p. 93
  13. ^ Lukhnow District: A Gazetteer Volume XXXVII, District Gazetteers of the United Provinces edited by H. Neville
  14. ^ People of India Delhi Volume XX edited by T. Ghosh & S. Nath pp. 485-489, Manohar Publications
  15. ^ People of India Rajasthan Volume XXXVIII Part Two edited by B.K. Lavania, D.K. Samanta, S.K. Mandal & N.N Vyas, pp. 986-990, Popular Prakashan
  16. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX, p. 9f., Government Central Press, Bombay
  17. ^ People of India Gujarat Volume XXII Part Two edited by R.B. Lal, S.V. Padmanabham & A. Mohideen, pp. 953-957, Popular Prakashan
  18. ^ . A Glossary of the Tribes & Castes of Punjab by H A Rose p. 130f., Low Price Publications
  19. ^ Culture, class and development in Pakistan: the emergence of an industrial bourgeoisie in Punjab by A.M. Weiss – Westview
  20. ^ Punjabi Musalmaan by JM Wikeley
  21. ^ Tareekh-e-Mughal by Muhammad Ilyas Mirza. The People living there are identifiable with many having blonde hair and blue eyes.
  22. ^ Brandeth, A: “District Gazetteer Jehllum”, p. 104, Punjab Government Press, 1904
  23. ^ Gazetteer of the Province of Sind by E H Aitken page 177 Mercantile Steam Press
  24. ^ People of India Jammu and Kashmir Volume XXV K Pandita, S.D.S Charak and B.R.Rizvi edited by T Ghosh & S Nath pages 128 to133 Manohar Publications
  25. a b c People of India Jammu and Kashmir Volume XXV K Pandita, S.D.S Charak and B.R.Rizvi edited by T Ghosh & S Nath pages 523 to526 Manohar Publications
  26. ^ PUNJABI MUSALMANS Lt. Col. J.M. Wikeley Second Edition THE BOOK HOUSE
  27. ^ Tareekh-e-Mughal by Muhammad Ilyas
  28. a b c d Pehchan, Detail genealogy of chughtai mughal tribe residing in a small village Langrewali, sialkot, By Muhammad Aslam Mughal
  29. ^ Pehchan, Detail genealogy of chughtai mughal tribe residing in a small village Langrewali, sialkot By Muhammad Aslam Mughal
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